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1 nigel 41 The pcretest program
2     --------------------
3    
4     This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for
5     experimenting with regular expressions.
6    
7     If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to
8     the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file
9     and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and
10 nigel 43 prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular expressions,
11     and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
12 nigel 41
13     The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
14     set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
15     lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the
16 nigel 43 data lines, at which point a new regular expression is read. The regular
17     expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric delimiters other than
18     backslash, for example
19 nigel 41
20     /(a|bc)x+yz/
21    
22     White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
23     be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
24 nigel 43 included within it. See the test input files in the testdata directory for many
25     examples. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern by
26     escaping it, for example
27 nigel 41
28     /abc\/def/
29    
30     If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
31     delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.
32     If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
33     example,
34    
35     /abc/\
36    
37     then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
38     way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
39     backslash, because
40    
41     /abc\/
42    
43     is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
44     pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
45    
46     The pattern may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS,
47     PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. For
48     example:
49    
50     /caseless/i
51    
52     These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are
53     others which set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl: /A,
54     /E, and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.
55    
56     Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
57     by the /g or /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called again to search
58     the remainder of the subject string. The difference between /g and /G is that
59     the former uses the startoffset argument to pcre_exec() to start searching at
60     a new point within the entire string (which is in effect what Perl does),
61     whereas the latter passes over a shortened substring. This makes a difference
62     to the matching process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion
63     (including \b or \B).
64    
65     If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty string, the
66     next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY flag set so that it cannot match an
67     empty string again at the same point. If however, this second match fails, the
68     start offset is advanced by one, and the match is retried. This imitates the
69     way Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.
70    
71     There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way pcretest
72     operates.
73    
74     The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that matched
75     the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of the
76     subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains multiple
77     copies of the same substring.
78    
79     The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,
80    
81     /pattern/Lfr
82    
83     For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,
84     pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,
85     and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular
86     expression. Without an /L modifier, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that
87     is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.
88    
89     The /I modifier requests that pcretest output information about the compiled
90     expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It
91 nigel 43 does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling an expression, and
92     outputting the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results
93     of that are also output.
94 nigel 41
95     The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes
96     the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after
97     compilation.
98    
99     The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been
100     compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.
101    
102     The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
103     pattern to be output.
104    
105     Finally, the /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
106     rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except /i,
107     /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is
108     set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always,
109     and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.
110    
111     Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace
112     is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:
113    
114     \a alarm (= BEL)
115     \b backspace
116     \e escape
117     \f formfeed
118     \n newline
119     \r carriage return
120     \t tab
121     \v vertical tab
122     \nnn octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
123     \xhh hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
124    
125     \A pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
126     \B pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()
127     \Cdd call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match
128     (any decimal number less than 32)
129     \Gdd call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match
130     (any decimal number less than 32)
131     \L call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match
132     \N pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
133     \Odd set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd
134     (any number of decimal digits)
135     \Z pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
136    
137     A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the
138     very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing
139     an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.
140    
141     If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only
142     \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to
143     regexec() respectively.
144    
145     When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
146     pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the
147     whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
148    
149     $ pcretest
150     PCRE version 2.06 08-Jun-1999
151    
152     re> /^abc(\d+)/
153     data> abc123
154     0: abc123
155     1: 123
156     data> xyz
157     No match
158    
159     If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x
160     escapes. If the pattern has the /+ modifier, then the output for substring 0 is
161     followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
162    
163     re> /cat/+
164     data> cataract
165     0: cat
166     0+ aract
167    
168     If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive matching
169     attempts are output in sequence, like this:
170    
171     re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
172     data> Mississippi
173     0: iss
174     1: ss
175     0: iss
176     1: ss
177     0: ipp
178     1: pp
179    
180     "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.
181    
182     If any of \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that is successfully
183     matched, the substrings extracted by the convenience functions are output with
184     C, G, or L after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addition to
185     the normal full list. The string length (that is, the return from the
186     extraction function) is given in parentheses after each string for \C and \G.
187    
188     Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
189     prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
190     included in data by means of the \n escape.
191    
192     If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each
193     regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the
194     following flags has any effect in this case.
195    
196     If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each
197     regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.
198    
199     If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each
200     regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after
201     compilation.
202    
203     If the option -m is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled
204     pattern after it has been compiled. It is equivalent to adding /M to each
205     regular expression. For compatibility with earlier versions of pcretest, -s is
206     a synonym for -m.
207    
208     If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 20000 times
209     while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in
210     milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output
211     20000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number
212     of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of
213     pcretest.c
214    
215     Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>
216     January 2000

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