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revision 77 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:45 2007 UTC revision 567 by ph10, Sat Nov 6 17:10:00 2010 UTC
# Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .rs  .rs
6  .sp  .sp
7  .B pcretest "[-C] [-d] [-dfa] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]"  .B pcretest "[options] [source] [destination]"
8  .ti +5n  .sp
 .B "[destination]"  
 .P  
9  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
11  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 26  documentation. Line 24  documentation.
24  .SH OPTIONS  .SH OPTIONS
25  .rs  .rs
26  .TP 10  .TP 10
27    \fB-b\fP
28    Behave as if each regex has the \fB/B\fP (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
29    form is output after compilation.
30    .TP 10
31  \fB-C\fP  \fB-C\fP
32  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
33  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
34  .TP 10  .TP 10
35  \fB-d\fP  \fB-d\fP
36  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
37  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
38    \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
39  .TP 10  .TP 10
40  \fB-dfa\fP  \fB-dfa\fP
41  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
42  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the
43  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
44  .TP 10  .TP 10
45    \fB-help\fP
46    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
47    .TP 10
48  \fB-i\fP  \fB-i\fP
49  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
50  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
51  .TP 10  .TP 10
52    \fB-M\fP
53    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
54    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
55    calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
56    .TP 10
57  \fB-m\fP  \fB-m\fP
58  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
59  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility
# Line 50  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s Line 61  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s
61  .TP 10  .TP 10
62  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
63  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
64  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value is 45, which is enough  \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value
65  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
66  matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. The vector size can be
67    changed for individual matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see
68    below).
69  .TP 10  .TP 10
70  \fB-p\fP  \fB-p\fP
71  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
72  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
73  set.  set.
74  .TP 10  .TP 10
75    \fB-q\fP
76    Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
77    .TP 10
78    \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
79    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to \fIsize\fP
80    megabytes.
81    .TP 10
82  \fB-t\fP  \fB-t\fP
83  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
84  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
85  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
86  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
87    used for timing by following \fB-t\fP with a number (as a separate item on the
88    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
89    to iterate 500000 times.
90    .TP 10
91    \fB-tm\fP
92    This is like \fB-t\fP except that it times only the matching phase, not the
93    compile or study phases.
94  .  .
95  .  .
96  .SH DESCRIPTION  .SH DESCRIPTION
# Line 75  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis Line 102  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis
102  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
103  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
104  .P  .P
105    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
106    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
107    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
108    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
109    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
110    .P
111  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
112  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
113  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
114  .P  .P
115  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
116  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,
117  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
118  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
119    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
120  .P  .P
121  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
122  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
123  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
124  .sp  .sp
125    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
126  .sp  .sp
# Line 131  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 165  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
165  .sp  .sp
166    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
167  .sp  .sp
168  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
169  not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
170  .sp  .sp
171    \fB/A\fP    PCRE_ANCHORED    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF8
172    \fB/C\fP    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
173    \fB/E\fP    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
174    \fB/f\fP    PCRE_FIRSTLINE    \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
175    \fB/N\fP    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
176    \fB/U\fP    PCRE_UNGREEDY    \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
177    \fB/X\fP    PCRE_EXTRA    \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
178      \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
179      \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
180      \fB/W\fP              PCRE_UCP
181      \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
182      \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
183      \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
184      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
185      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
186      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
187      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
188      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
189      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
190    .sp
191    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
192    including the angle brackets, but the letters can be in either case. This
193    example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
194    .sp
195      /^abc/m<crlf>
196    .sp
197    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier also causes
198    any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
199    \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of the PCRE
200    options are given in the
201    .\" HREF
202    \fBpcreapi\fP
203    .\"
204    documentation.
205    .
206    .
207    .SS "Finding all matches in a string"
208    .rs
209  .sp  .sp
210  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
211  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
# Line 152  substring. This makes a difference to th Line 217  substring. This makes a difference to th
217  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
218  .P  .P
219  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an
220  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
221  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
222  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
223  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
224  \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function.  using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
225  .P  offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
226    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
227    of two is used.
228    .
229    .
230    .SS "Other modifiers"
231    .rs
232    .sp
233  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP
234  operates.  operates.
235  .P  .P
# Line 166  matched the entire pattern, pcretest sho Line 238  matched the entire pattern, pcretest sho
238  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains
239  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
240  .P  .P
241  The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
242  example,  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
243  .sp  this information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is
244    /pattern/Lfr_FR  also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
245  .sp  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
246  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  for different internal link sizes.
 \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the  
 locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the  
 regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  
 pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 .P  
 The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the  
 compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  
 so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a  
 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
247  .P  .P
248  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes \fB/I\fP.  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
249  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
250  .P  .P
251  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
252  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
# Line 195  available when the POSIX interface to PC Line 256  available when the POSIX interface to PC
256  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
257  reloading compiled patterns below.  reloading compiled patterns below.
258  .P  .P
259  The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
260  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
261  matched.  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
262    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
263    .P
264    The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
265    control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP. It causes
266    \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre_extra\fP block if one has not already been
267    created by a call to \fBpcre_study()\fP, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag
268    and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that \fBpcre_exec()\fP is
269    called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field points to is non-NULL for a
270    match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP prints the string to which
271    it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".
272    For a non-match it is added to the message.
273    .P
274    The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
275    example,
276    .sp
277      /pattern/Lfr_FR
278    .sp
279    For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
280    \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the
281    locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the
282    regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is passed
283    as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on
284    which it appears.
285  .P  .P
286  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
287  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output.
288  .P  .P
289    The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the
290    expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
291    matched.
292    .P
293    The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
294    set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP. It is
295    used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
296    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
297    .sp
298      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
299            pcre_chartables.c.dist
300      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
301    .sp
302    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
303    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
304    .
305    .
306    .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
307    .rs
308    .sp
309  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
310  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. When \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers
311  \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, and \fB/+\fP are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fP is  set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP function:
312  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fP is present. The wrapper functions  .sp
313  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.    /i    REG_ICASE
314  .P    /m    REG_NEWLINE
315  The \fB/8\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8    /N    REG_NOSUB
316  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
317  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
318  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
319  \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.    /8    REG_UTF8       )
320  .P  .sp
321  If the \fB/?\fP modifier is used with \fB/8\fP, it causes \fBpcretest\fP to  The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
322  call \fBpcre_compile()\fP with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  ignored.
 checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
323  .  .
324  .  .
325  .SH "DATA LINES"  .SH "DATA LINES"
# Line 229  complicated features of PCRE. If you are Line 332  complicated features of PCRE. If you are
332  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
333  recognized:  recognized:
334  .sp  .sp
335    \ea         alarm (= BEL)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
336    \eb         backspace    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
337    \ee         escape    \ee         escape (\ex27)
338    \ef         formfeed    \ef         formfeed (\ex0c)
339    \en         newline    \en         newline (\ex0a)
340    \er         carriage return  .\" JOIN
341    \et         tab    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
342    \ev         vertical tab                 (any number of digits)
343      \er         carriage return (\ex0d)
344      \et         tab (\ex09)
345      \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
346    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
347    \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
348  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
349    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
350                 in UTF-8 mode                 in UTF-8 mode
351    .\" JOIN
352    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
353                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
354    .\" JOIN
355    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
356                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
357  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
358    \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd    \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
359                 after a successful match (number less than 32)                 after a successful match (number less than 32)
# Line 276  recognized: Line 386  recognized:
386  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
387    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
388                 successful match                 successful match
389    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting  .\" JOIN
390      \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
391                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
392    .\" JOIN
393    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
394                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
395                   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
396  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
397    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
398                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
399  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
400    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
401                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
402                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
403    .\" JOIN
404      \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
405                   (any number of digits)
406    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
407    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
408    .\" JOIN
409      \eY         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
410                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
411    .\" JOIN
412    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
413                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
414  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
415    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
416                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
417    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);  .\" JOIN
418                 this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
419  .sp                 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
420  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the                 argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
421  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  .\" JOIN
422  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
423                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
424    .\" JOIN
425      \e<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
426                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
427    .\" JOIN
428      \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
429                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
430    .\" JOIN
431      \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
432                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
433    .\" JOIN
434      \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
435                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
436    .sp
437    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
438    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
439    .P
440    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
441    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
442    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
443    input.
444  .P  .P
445  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with
446  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP field of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
447  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  fields of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum
448  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. The
449  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
450  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
451  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
452  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
453    subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how much
454    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
455    to complete the match attempt.
456  .P  .P
457  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
458  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to
459  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
460  .P  .P
461  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
462  API to be used, only \eB and \eZ have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
463  REG_NOTEOL to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP respectively.  \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
464    to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
465  .P  .P
466  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
467  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
468  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
469  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
470    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
471    valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
472    later rules in RFC 3629.
473  .  .
474  .  .
475  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 348  This section describes the output when t Line 500  This section describes the output when t
500  .P  .P
501  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
502  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
503  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
504  when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
505  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  substring when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is
506  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.  the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it may
507    include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
508    \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other returns, it outputs the PCRE
509    negative error number. Here is an example of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
510  .sp  .sp
511    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
512    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
513  .sp  .sp
514      re> /^abc(\ed+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
515    data> abc123    data> abc123
# Line 363  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run. Line 518  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
518    data> xyz    data> xyz
519    No match    No match
520  .sp  .sp
521    Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set
522    are not returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In
523    the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first
524    data line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal"
525    unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
526    .sp
527        re> /(a)|(b)/
528      data> a
529       0: a
530       1: a
531      data> b
532       0: b
533       1: <unset>
534       2: b
535    .sp
536  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x
537  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the
538  pattern. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
539  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
540  this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
541  .sp  .sp
542      re> /cat/+      re> /cat/+
543    data> cataract    data> cataract
# Line 395  instead of a colon. This is in addition Line 565  instead of a colon. This is in addition
565  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
566  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.
567  .P  .P
568  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
569  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
570  included in data by means of the \en escape.  included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er, \er\en, etc., depending on
571    the newline sequence setting).
572    .
573  .  .
574  .  .
575  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 415  the subject where there is at least one Line 587  the subject where there is at least one
587     2: tan     2: tan
588  .sp  .sp
589  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
590  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
591    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
592    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
593    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
594    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
595  .P  .P
596  If \fB/g\P is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
597  at the end of the longest match. For example:  at the end of the longest match. For example:
598  .sp  .sp
599      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
# Line 441  indicating that the subject partially ma Line 617  indicating that the subject partially ma
617  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For
618  example:  example:
619  .sp  .sp
620      re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/      re> /^\ed?\ed(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\ed\ed$/
621    data> 23ja\eP\eD    data> 23ja\eP\eD
622    Partial match: 23ja    Partial match: 23ja
623    data> n05\eR\eD    data> n05\eR\eD
# Line 498  the Line 674  the
674  documentation.  documentation.
675  .  .
676  .  .
677    .
678    .SH "NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS"
679    .rs
680    .sp
681    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
682    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
683    therefore shown as hex escapes.
684    .P
685    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
686    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
687    the pattern (using the \fB/L\fP modifier). In this case, the \fBisprint()\fP
688    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
689    .
690    .
691    .
692  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"
693  .rs  .rs
694  .sp  .sp
# Line 558  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t Line 749  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t
749  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
750  .  .
751  .  .
752    .SH "SEE ALSO"
753    .rs
754    .sp
755    \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),
756    \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
757    .
758    .
759  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
760  .rs  .rs
761  .sp  .sp
762    .nf
763  Philip Hazel  Philip Hazel
764  .br  University Computing Service
765  University Computing Service,  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
766  .br  .fi
767  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  .
768  .P  .
769  .in 0  .SH REVISION
770  Last updated: 28 February 2005  .rs
771  .br  .sp
772  Copyright (c) 1997-2005 University of Cambridge.  .nf
773    Last updated: 06 November 2010
774    Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
775    .fi

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