/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcregrep.txt
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revision 90 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:21 2007 UTC revision 91 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:34 2007 UTC
# Line 44  DESCRIPTION Line 44  DESCRIPTION
44         dard  output, and if there is more than one file, the file name is out-         dard  output, and if there is more than one file, the file name is out-
45         put at the start of each line. However,  there  are  options  that  can         put at the start of each line. However,  there  are  options  that  can
46         change how pcregrep behaves. In particular, the -M option makes it pos-         change how pcregrep behaves. In particular, the -M option makes it pos-
47         sible to search for patterns that span line boundaries.         sible to search for patterns that span line boundaries. What defines  a
48           line boundary is controlled by the -N (--newline) option.
49    
50         Patterns are limited to 8K  or  BUFSIZ  characters,  whichever  is  the         Patterns  are  limited  to  8K  or  BUFSIZ characters, whichever is the
51         greater.  BUFSIZ is defined in <stdio.h>.         greater.  BUFSIZ is defined in <stdio.h>.
52    
53         If  the  LC_ALL  or LC_CTYPE environment variable is set, pcregrep uses         If the LC_ALL or LC_CTYPE environment variable is  set,  pcregrep  uses
54         the value to set a locale when calling the PCRE library.  The  --locale         the  value to set a locale when calling the PCRE library.  The --locale
55         option can be used to override this.         option can be used to override this.
56    
57    
58  OPTIONS  OPTIONS
59    
60         --        This  terminate the list of options. It is useful if the next         --        This terminate the list of options. It is useful if the  next
61                   item on the command line starts with a hyphen but is  not  an                   item  on  the command line starts with a hyphen but is not an
62                   option.  This allows for the processing of patterns and file-                   option. This allows for the processing of patterns and  file-
63                   names that start with hyphens.                   names that start with hyphens.
64    
65         -A number, --after-context=number         -A number, --after-context=number
66                   Output number lines of context after each matching  line.  If                   Output  number  lines of context after each matching line. If
67                   filenames and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen sep-                   filenames and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen sep-
68                   arator is used instead of a colon for the  context  lines.  A                   arator  is  used  instead of a colon for the context lines. A
69                   line  containing  "--" is output between each group of lines,                   line containing "--" is output between each group  of  lines,
70                   unless they are in fact contiguous in  the  input  file.  The                   unless  they  are  in  fact contiguous in the input file. The
71                   value  of number is expected to be relatively small. However,                   value of number is expected to be relatively small.  However,
72                   pcregrep guarantees to have up to 8K of following text avail-                   pcregrep guarantees to have up to 8K of following text avail-
73                   able for context output.                   able for context output.
74    
75         -B number, --before-context=number         -B number, --before-context=number
76                   Output  number lines of context before each matching line. If                   Output number lines of context before each matching line.  If
77                   filenames and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen sep-                   filenames and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen sep-
78                   arator  is  used  instead of a colon for the context lines. A                   arator is used instead of a colon for the  context  lines.  A
79                   line containing "--" is output between each group  of  lines,                   line  containing  "--" is output between each group of lines,
80                   unless  they  are  in  fact contiguous in the input file. The                   unless they are in fact contiguous in  the  input  file.  The
81                   value of number is expected to be relatively small.  However,                   value  of number is expected to be relatively small. However,
82                   pcregrep guarantees to have up to 8K of preceding text avail-                   pcregrep guarantees to have up to 8K of preceding text avail-
83                   able for context output.                   able for context output.
84    
85         -C number, --context=number         -C number, --context=number
86                   Output number lines of context both  before  and  after  each                   Output  number  lines  of  context both before and after each
87                   matching  line.  This is equivalent to setting both -A and -B                   matching line.  This is equivalent to setting both -A and  -B
88                   to the same value.                   to the same value.
89    
90         -c, --count         -c, --count
91                   Do not output individual lines; instead just output  a  count                   Do  not  output individual lines; instead just output a count
92                   of the number of lines that would otherwise have been output.                   of the number of lines that would otherwise have been output.
93                   If several files are given, a count is  output  for  each  of                   If  several  files  are  given, a count is output for each of
94                   them. In this mode, the -A, -B, and -C options are ignored.                   them. In this mode, the -A, -B, and -C options are ignored.
95    
96         --colour, --color         --colour, --color
97                   If this option is given without any data, it is equivalent to                   If this option is given without any data, it is equivalent to
98                   "--colour=auto".  If data is required, it must  be  given  in                   "--colour=auto".   If  data  is required, it must be given in
99                   the same shell item, separated by an equals sign.                   the same shell item, separated by an equals sign.
100    
101         --colour=value, --color=value         --colour=value, --color=value
102                   This  option specifies under what circumstances the part of a                   This option specifies under what circumstances the part of  a
103                   line that matched a pattern should be coloured in the output.                   line that matched a pattern should be coloured in the output.
104                   The  value may be "never" (the default), "always", or "auto".                   The value may be "never" (the default), "always", or  "auto".
105                   In the latter case, colouring happens only  if  the  standard                   In  the  latter  case, colouring happens only if the standard
106                   output  is  connected to a terminal. The colour can be speci-                   output is connected to a terminal. The colour can  be  speci-
107                   fied by setting the environment variable  PCREGREP_COLOUR  or                   fied  by  setting the environment variable PCREGREP_COLOUR or
108                   PCREGREP_COLOR. The value of this variable should be a string                   PCREGREP_COLOR. The value of this variable should be a string
109                   of two numbers, separated by a semicolon.   They  are  copied                   of  two  numbers,  separated by a semicolon.  They are copied
110                   directly into the control string for setting colour on a ter-                   directly into the control string for setting colour on a ter-
111                   minal, so it is your responsibility to ensure that they  make                   minal,  so it is your responsibility to ensure that they make
112                   sense.  If  neither  of the environment variables is set, the                   sense. If neither of the environment variables  is  set,  the
113                   default is "1;31", which gives red.                   default is "1;31", which gives red.
114    
115         -D action, --devices=action         -D action, --devices=action
116                   If an input path is  not  a  regular  file  or  a  directory,                   If  an  input  path  is  not  a  regular file or a directory,
117                   "action"  specifies  how  it is to be processed. Valid values                   "action" specifies how it is to be  processed.  Valid  values
118                   are "read" (the default) or "skip" (silently skip the  path).                   are  "read" (the default) or "skip" (silently skip the path).
119    
120         -d action, --directories=action         -d action, --directories=action
121                   If an input path is a directory, "action" specifies how it is                   If an input path is a directory, "action" specifies how it is
122                   to be processed.  Valid  values  are  "read"  (the  default),                   to  be  processed.   Valid  values  are "read" (the default),
123                   "recurse"  (equivalent to the -r option), or "skip" (silently                   "recurse" (equivalent to the -r option), or "skip"  (silently
124                   skip the path). In the default case, directories are read  as                   skip  the path). In the default case, directories are read as
125                   if  they  were  ordinary files. In some operating systems the                   if they were ordinary files. In some  operating  systems  the
126                   effect of reading a directory like this is an immediate  end-                   effect  of reading a directory like this is an immediate end-
127                   of-file.                   of-file.
128    
129         -e pattern, --regex=pattern,         -e pattern, --regex=pattern,
130                   --regexp=pattern Specify a pattern to be matched. This option                   --regexp=pattern Specify a pattern to be matched. This option
131                   can be used multiple times in order to specify  several  pat-                   can  be  used multiple times in order to specify several pat-
132                   terns.  It  can  also be used as a way of specifying a single                   terns. It can also be used as a way of  specifying  a  single
133                   pattern that starts with a hyphen. When -e is used, no  argu-                   pattern  that starts with a hyphen. When -e is used, no argu-
134                   ment  pattern  is  taken from the command line; all arguments                   ment pattern is taken from the command  line;  all  arguments
135                   are treated as file names. There is an overall maximum of 100                   are treated as file names. There is an overall maximum of 100
136                   patterns. They are applied to each line in the order in which                   patterns. They are applied to each line in the order in which
137                   they are defined until one matches (or fails to match  if  -v                   they  are  defined until one matches (or fails to match if -v
138                   is  used).  If  -f is used with -e, the command line patterns                   is used). If -f is used with -e, the  command  line  patterns
139                   are matched first, followed by the patterns  from  the  file,                   are  matched  first,  followed by the patterns from the file,
140                   independent  of  the  order in which these options are speci-                   independent of the order in which these  options  are  speci-
141                   fied. Note that multiple use of -e is not the same as a  sin-                   fied.  Note that multiple use of -e is not the same as a sin-
142                   gle  pattern  with  alternatives.  For example, X|Y finds the                   gle pattern with alternatives. For  example,  X|Y  finds  the
143                   first character in a line that is X or Y, whereas if the  two                   first  character in a line that is X or Y, whereas if the two
144                   patterns  are  given  separately,  pcregrep  finds X if it is                   patterns are given separately, pcregrep  finds  X  if  it  is
145                   present, even if it follows Y in the line. It finds Y only if                   present, even if it follows Y in the line. It finds Y only if
146                   there  is  no  X in the line. This really matters only if you                   there is no X in the line. This really matters  only  if  you
147                   are using -o to show the portion of the line that matched.                   are using -o to show the portion of the line that matched.
148    
149         --exclude=pattern         --exclude=pattern
150                   When pcregrep is searching the files in a directory as a con-                   When pcregrep is searching the files in a directory as a con-
151                   sequence of the -r (recursive search) option, any files whose                   sequence of the -r (recursive search) option, any files whose
152                   names match the pattern are excluded. The pattern is  a  PCRE                   names  match  the pattern are excluded. The pattern is a PCRE
153                   regular expression. If a file name matches both --include and                   regular expression. If a file name matches both --include and
154                   --exclude, it is excluded. There is no short  form  for  this                   --exclude,  it  is  excluded. There is no short form for this
155                   option.                   option.
156    
157         -F, --fixed-strings         -F, --fixed-strings
158                   Interpret  each pattern as a list of fixed strings, separated                   Interpret each pattern as a list of fixed strings,  separated
159                   by newlines, instead of  as  a  regular  expression.  The  -w                   by  newlines,  instead  of  as  a  regular expression. The -w
160                   (match  as  a  word) and -x (match whole line) options can be                   (match as a word) and -x (match whole line)  options  can  be
161                   used with -F. They apply to each of the fixed strings. A line                   used with -F. They apply to each of the fixed strings. A line
162                   is selected if any of the fixed strings are found in it (sub-                   is selected if any of the fixed strings are found in it (sub-
163                   ject to -w or -x, if present).                   ject to -w or -x, if present).
164    
165         -f filename, --file=filename         -f filename, --file=filename
166                   Read a number of patterns from the file, one  per  line,  and                   Read  a  number  of patterns from the file, one per line, and
167                   match  them against each line of input. A data line is output                   match them against each line of input. A data line is  output
168                   if any of the patterns match it. The filename can be given as                   if any of the patterns match it. The filename can be given as
169                   "-" to refer to the standard input. When -f is used, patterns                   "-" to refer to the standard input. When -f is used, patterns
170                   specified on the command line using -e may also  be  present;                   specified  on  the command line using -e may also be present;
171                   they are tested before the file's patterns. However, no other                   they are tested before the file's patterns. However, no other
172                   pattern is taken from the command  line;  all  arguments  are                   pattern  is  taken  from  the command line; all arguments are
173                   treated  as  file  names.  There is an overall maximum of 100                   treated as file names. There is an  overall  maximum  of  100
174                   patterns. Trailing white space is removed from each line, and                   patterns. Trailing white space is removed from each line, and
175                   blank  lines  are ignored. An empty file contains no patterns                   blank lines are ignored. An empty file contains  no  patterns
176                   and therefore matches nothing.                   and therefore matches nothing.
177    
178         -H, --with-filename         -H, --with-filename
179                   Force the inclusion of the filename at the  start  of  output                   Force  the  inclusion  of the filename at the start of output
180                   lines  when searching a single file. By default, the filename                   lines when searching a single file. By default, the  filename
181                   is not shown in this case. For matching lines,  the  filename                   is  not  shown in this case. For matching lines, the filename
182                   is  followed  by  a  colon  and a space; for context lines, a                   is followed by a colon and a  space;  for  context  lines,  a
183                   hyphen separator is used. If a line number is also being out-                   hyphen separator is used. If a line number is also being out-
184                   put, it follows the file name without a space.                   put, it follows the file name without a space.
185    
186         -h, --no-filename         -h, --no-filename
187                   Suppress  the output filenames when searching multiple files.                   Suppress the output filenames when searching multiple  files.
188                   By default, filenames  are  shown  when  multiple  files  are                   By  default,  filenames  are  shown  when  multiple files are
189                   searched.  For  matching lines, the filename is followed by a                   searched. For matching lines, the filename is followed  by  a
190                   colon and a space; for context lines, a hyphen  separator  is                   colon  and  a space; for context lines, a hyphen separator is
191                   used.  If  a line number is also being output, it follows the                   used. If a line number is also being output, it  follows  the
192                   file name without a space.                   file name without a space.
193    
194         --help    Output a brief help message and exit.         --help    Output a brief help message and exit.
# Line 197  OPTIONS Line 198  OPTIONS
198    
199         --include=pattern         --include=pattern
200                   When pcregrep is searching the files in a directory as a con-                   When pcregrep is searching the files in a directory as a con-
201                   sequence  of  the  -r  (recursive  search) option, only those                   sequence of the -r  (recursive  search)  option,  only  those
202                   files whose names match the pattern are included. The pattern                   files whose names match the pattern are included. The pattern
203                   is  a  PCRE  regular  expression. If a file name matches both                   is a PCRE regular expression. If a  file  name  matches  both
204                   --include and --exclude, it is excluded. There  is  no  short                   --include  and  --exclude,  it is excluded. There is no short
205                   form for this option.                   form for this option.
206    
207         -L, --files-without-match         -L, --files-without-match
208                   Instead  of  outputting lines from the files, just output the                   Instead of outputting lines from the files, just  output  the
209                   names of the files that do not contain any lines  that  would                   names  of  the files that do not contain any lines that would
210                   have  been  output. Each file name is output once, on a sepa-                   have been output. Each file name is output once, on  a  sepa-
211                   rate line.                   rate line.
212    
213         -l, --files-with-matches         -l, --files-with-matches
214                   Instead of outputting lines from the files, just  output  the                   Instead  of  outputting lines from the files, just output the
215                   names of the files containing lines that would have been out-                   names of the files containing lines that would have been out-
216                   put. Each file name is  output  once,  on  a  separate  line.                   put.  Each  file  name  is  output  once, on a separate line.
217                   Searching  stops  as  soon  as  a matching line is found in a                   Searching stops as soon as a matching  line  is  found  in  a
218                   file.                   file.
219    
220         --label=name         --label=name
# Line 222  OPTIONS Line 223  OPTIONS
223                   input)" is used. There is no short form for this option.                   input)" is used. There is no short form for this option.
224    
225         --locale=locale-name         --locale=locale-name
226                   This option specifies a locale to be used for pattern  match-                   This  option specifies a locale to be used for pattern match-
227                   ing.  It  overrides the value in the LC_ALL or LC_CTYPE envi-                   ing. It overrides the value in the LC_ALL or  LC_CTYPE  envi-
228                   ronment variables.  If  no  locale  is  specified,  the  PCRE                   ronment  variables.  If  no  locale  is  specified,  the PCRE
229                   library's  default (usually the "C" locale) is used. There is                   library's default (usually the "C" locale) is used. There  is
230                   no short form for this option.                   no short form for this option.
231    
232         -M, --multiline         -M, --multiline
233                   Allow patterns to match more than one line. When this  option                   Allow  patterns to match more than one line. When this option
234                   is given, patterns may usefully contain literal newline char-                   is given, patterns may usefully contain literal newline char-
235                   acters and internal occurrences of ^ and  $  characters.  The                   acters  and  internal  occurrences of ^ and $ characters. The
236                   output  for  any one match may consist of more than one line.                   output for any one match may consist of more than  one  line.
237                   When this option is set, the PCRE library is called in  "mul-                   When  this option is set, the PCRE library is called in "mul-
238                   tiline"  mode.   There is a limit to the number of lines that                   tiline" mode.  There is a limit to the number of  lines  that
239                   can be matched, imposed by the way that pcregrep buffers  the                   can  be matched, imposed by the way that pcregrep buffers the
240                   input  file as it scans it. However, pcregrep ensures that at                   input file as it scans it. However, pcregrep ensures that  at
241                   least 8K characters or the rest of the document (whichever is                   least 8K characters or the rest of the document (whichever is
242                   the  shorter)  are  available for forward matching, and simi-                   the shorter) are available for forward  matching,  and  simi-
243                   larly the previous 8K characters (or all the previous charac-                   larly the previous 8K characters (or all the previous charac-
244                   ters,  if  fewer  than 8K) are guaranteed to be available for                   ters, if fewer than 8K) are guaranteed to  be  available  for
245                   lookbehind assertions.                   lookbehind assertions.
246    
247           -N newline-type, --newline=newline-type
248                     The PCRE library supports three different character sequences
249                     for indicating the ends of lines. They are the single-charac-
250                     ter sequences CR (carriage return) and LF (linefeed), and the
251                     two-character sequence CR, LF. When the library is  built,  a
252                     default  line-ending  sequence is specified. This is normally
253                     the standard sequence for the operating system. Unless other-
254                     wise specified by this option, pcregrep uses the default. The
255                     possible values for this option are CR,  LF,  or  CRLF.  This
256                     makes  it  possible  to  use pcregrep on files that have come
257                     from other environments without having to modify  their  line
258                     endings.   If  the  data that is being scanned does not agree
259                     with the convention set by this option, pcregrep  may  behave
260                     in strange ways.
261    
262         -n, --line-number         -n, --line-number
263                   Precede each output line by its line number in the file, fol-                   Precede each output line by its line number in the file, fol-
264                   lowed  by  a colon and a space for matching lines or a hyphen                   lowed by a colon and a space for matching lines or  a  hyphen
265                   and a space for context lines. If the filename is also  being                   and  a space for context lines. If the filename is also being
266                   output, it precedes the line number.                   output, it precedes the line number.
267    
268         -o, --only-matching         -o, --only-matching
269                   Show  only  the  part  of the line that matched a pattern. In                   Show only the part of the line that  matched  a  pattern.  In
270                   this mode, no context is shown. That is, the -A, -B,  and  -C                   this  mode,  no context is shown. That is, the -A, -B, and -C
271                   options are ignored.                   options are ignored.
272    
273         -q, --quiet         -q, --quiet
274                   Work quietly, that is, display nothing except error messages.                   Work quietly, that is, display nothing except error messages.
275                   The exit status indicates whether or  not  any  matches  were                   The  exit  status  indicates  whether or not any matches were
276                   found.                   found.
277    
278         -r, --recursive         -r, --recursive
279                   If  any given path is a directory, recursively scan the files                   If any given path is a directory, recursively scan the  files
280                   it contains, taking note of any --include and --exclude  set-                   it  contains, taking note of any --include and --exclude set-
281                   tings.  By  default, a directory is read as a normal file; in                   tings. By default, a directory is read as a normal  file;  in
282                   some operating systems this gives an  immediate  end-of-file.                   some  operating  systems this gives an immediate end-of-file.
283                   This  option  is  a  shorthand  for  setting the -d option to                   This option is a shorthand  for  setting  the  -d  option  to
284                   "recurse".                   "recurse".
285    
286         -s, --no-messages         -s, --no-messages
287                   Suppress error  messages  about  non-existent  or  unreadable                   Suppress  error  messages  about  non-existent  or unreadable
288                   files.  Such  files  are quietly skipped. However, the return                   files. Such files are quietly skipped.  However,  the  return
289                   code is still 2, even if matches were found in other files.                   code is still 2, even if matches were found in other files.
290    
291         -u, --utf-8         -u, --utf-8
292                   Operate in UTF-8 mode. This option is available only if  PCRE                   Operate  in UTF-8 mode. This option is available only if PCRE
293                   has  been compiled with UTF-8 support. Both patterns and sub-                   has been compiled with UTF-8 support. Both patterns and  sub-
294                   ject lines must be valid strings of UTF-8 characters.                   ject lines must be valid strings of UTF-8 characters.
295    
296         -V, --version         -V, --version
297                   Write the version numbers of pcregrep and  the  PCRE  library                   Write  the  version  numbers of pcregrep and the PCRE library
298                   that is being used to the standard error stream.                   that is being used to the standard error stream.
299    
300         -v, --invert-match         -v, --invert-match
301                   Invert  the  sense  of  the match, so that lines which do not                   Invert the sense of the match, so that  lines  which  do  not
302                   match any of the patterns are the ones that are found.                   match any of the patterns are the ones that are found.
303    
304         -w, --word-regex, --word-regexp         -w, --word-regex, --word-regexp
# Line 290  OPTIONS Line 306  OPTIONS
306                   lent to having \b at the start and end of the pattern.                   lent to having \b at the start and end of the pattern.
307    
308         -x, --line-regex, --line-regexp         -x, --line-regex, --line-regexp
309                   Force  the  patterns to be anchored (each must start matching                   Force the patterns to be anchored (each must  start  matching
310                   at the beginning of a line) and in addition, require them  to                   at  the beginning of a line) and in addition, require them to
311                   match  entire  lines.  This  is  equivalent to having ^ and $                   match entire lines. This is equivalent  to  having  ^  and  $
312                   characters at the start and end of each alternative branch in                   characters at the start and end of each alternative branch in
313                   every pattern.                   every pattern.
314    
315    
316  ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES  ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
317    
318         The  environment  variables  LC_ALL  and LC_CTYPE are examined, in that         The environment variables LC_ALL and LC_CTYPE  are  examined,  in  that
319         order, for a locale. The first one that is set is  used.  This  can  be         order,  for  a  locale.  The first one that is set is used. This can be
320         overridden  by  the  --locale  option.  If  no  locale is set, the PCRE         overridden by the --locale option.  If  no  locale  is  set,  the  PCRE
321         library's default (usually the "C" locale) is used.         library's default (usually the "C" locale) is used.
322    
323    
324    NEWLINES
325    
326           The  -N (--newline) option allows pcregrep to scan files with different
327           newline conventions from the default.  However,  the  setting  of  this
328           option  does not affect the way in which pcregrep writes information to
329           the standard error and output streams. It uses the  string  "\n"  in  C
330           printf()  calls  to  indicate newlines, relying on the C I/O library to
331           convert this to an appropriate sequence if the  output  is  sent  to  a
332           file.
333    
334    
335  OPTIONS COMPATIBILITY  OPTIONS COMPATIBILITY
336    
337         The majority of short and long forms of pcregrep's options are the same         The majority of short and long forms of pcregrep's options are the same
338         as  in  the  GNU grep program. Any long option of the form --xxx-regexp         as in the GNU grep program. Any long option of  the  form  --xxx-regexp
339         (GNU terminology) is also available as --xxx-regex (PCRE  terminology).         (GNU  terminology) is also available as --xxx-regex (PCRE terminology).
340         However,  the  --locale,  -M,  --multiline, -u, and --utf-8 options are         However, the --locale, -M, --multiline, -u,  and  --utf-8  options  are
341         specific to pcregrep.         specific to pcregrep.
342    
343    
344  OPTIONS WITH DATA  OPTIONS WITH DATA
345    
346         There are four different ways in which an option with data can be spec-         There are four different ways in which an option with data can be spec-
347         ified.   If  a  short  form option is used, the data may follow immedi-         ified.  If a short form option is used, the  data  may  follow  immedi-
348         ately, or in the next command line item. For example:         ately, or in the next command line item. For example:
349    
350           -f/some/file           -f/some/file
351           -f /some/file           -f /some/file
352    
353         If a long form option is used, the data may appear in the same  command         If  a long form option is used, the data may appear in the same command
354         line item, separated by an equals character, or (with one exception) it         line item, separated by an equals character, or (with one exception) it
355         may appear in the next command line item. For example:         may appear in the next command line item. For example:
356    
357           --file=/some/file           --file=/some/file
358           --file /some/file           --file /some/file
359    
360         Note, however, that if you want to supply a file name beginning with  ~         Note,  however, that if you want to supply a file name beginning with ~
361         as  data  in  a  shell  command,  and have the shell expand ~ to a home         as data in a shell command, and have the  shell  expand  ~  to  a  home
362         directory, you must separate the file name from the option, because the         directory, you must separate the file name from the option, because the
363         shell  does not treat ~ specially unless it is at the start of an item.         shell does not treat ~ specially unless it is at the start of an  item.
364    
365         The exception to the above is the --colour  (or  --color)  option,  for         The  exception  to  the  above is the --colour (or --color) option, for
366         which  the  data is optional. If this option does have data, it must be         which the data is optional. If this option does have data, it  must  be
367         given in the first form, using an equals character. Otherwise  it  will         given  in  the first form, using an equals character. Otherwise it will
368         be assumed that it has no data.         be assumed that it has no data.
369    
370    
371  MATCHING ERRORS  MATCHING ERRORS
372    
373         It  is  possible  to supply a regular expression that takes a very long         It is possible to supply a regular expression that takes  a  very  long
374         time to fail to match certain lines.  Such  patterns  normally  involve         time  to  fail  to  match certain lines. Such patterns normally involve
375         nested  indefinite repeats, for example: (a+)*\d when matched against a         nested indefinite repeats, for example: (a+)*\d when matched against  a
376         line of a's with no final digit.  The  PCRE  matching  function  has  a         line  of  a's  with  no  final  digit. The PCRE matching function has a
377         resource  limit that causes it to abort in these circumstances. If this         resource limit that causes it to abort in these circumstances. If  this
378         happens, pcregrep outputs an error message and the line that caused the         happens, pcregrep outputs an error message and the line that caused the
379         problem  to  the  standard error stream. If there are more than 20 such         problem to the standard error stream. If there are more  than  20  such
380         errors, pcregrep gives up.         errors, pcregrep gives up.
381    
382    
383  DIAGNOSTICS  DIAGNOSTICS
384    
385         Exit status is 0 if any matches were found, 1 if no matches were found,         Exit status is 0 if any matches were found, 1 if no matches were found,
386         and  2 for syntax errors and non-existent or inacessible files (even if         and 2 for syntax errors and non-existent or inacessible files (even  if
387         matches were found in other files) or too many matching  errors.  Using         matches  were  found in other files) or too many matching errors. Using
388         the  -s  option to suppress error messages about inaccessble files does         the -s option to suppress error messages about inaccessble  files  does
389         not affect the return code.         not affect the return code.
390    
391    
# Line 368  AUTHOR Line 395  AUTHOR
395         University Computing Service         University Computing Service
396         Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.         Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.
397    
398  Last updated: 23 January 2006  Last updated: 06 June 2006
399  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.

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