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1 nigel 49 .TH PCREGREP 1
2     .SH NAME
3     pcregrep - a grep with Perl-compatible regular expressions.
4     .SH SYNOPSIS
5 nigel 87 .B pcregrep [options] [long options] [pattern] [path1 path2 ...]
6 nigel 75 .
7 nigel 49 .SH DESCRIPTION
8 nigel 63 .rs
9     .sp
10 nigel 75 \fBpcregrep\fP searches files for character patterns, in the same way as other
11 nigel 49 grep commands do, but it uses the PCRE regular expression library to support
12     patterns that are compatible with the regular expressions of Perl 5. See
13 nigel 63 .\" HREF
14 nigel 93 \fBpcrepattern\fP(3)
15 nigel 63 .\"
16 nigel 93 for a full description of syntax and semantics of the regular expressions
17     that PCRE supports.
18 nigel 75 .P
19 nigel 87 Patterns, whether supplied on the command line or in a separate file, are given
20     without delimiters. For example:
21     .sp
22     pcregrep Thursday /etc/motd
23     .sp
24     If you attempt to use delimiters (for example, by surrounding a pattern with
25     slashes, as is common in Perl scripts), they are interpreted as part of the
26 ph10 279 pattern. Quotes can of course be used to delimit patterns on the command line
27     because they are interpreted by the shell, and indeed they are required if a
28     pattern contains white space or shell metacharacters.
29 nigel 75 .P
30 nigel 87 The first argument that follows any option settings is treated as the single
31     pattern to be matched when neither \fB-e\fP nor \fB-f\fP is present.
32     Conversely, when one or both of these options are used to specify patterns, all
33     arguments are treated as path names. At least one of \fB-e\fP, \fB-f\fP, or an
34     argument pattern must be provided.
35     .P
36 nigel 77 If no files are specified, \fBpcregrep\fP reads the standard input. The
37     standard input can also be referenced by a name consisting of a single hyphen.
38     For example:
39     .sp
40     pcregrep some-pattern /file1 - /file3
41     .sp
42 ph10 281 By default, each line that matches a pattern is copied to the standard
43 nigel 87 output, and if there is more than one file, the file name is output at the
44 ph10 279 start of each line, followed by a colon. However, there are options that can
45     change how \fBpcregrep\fP behaves. In particular, the \fB-M\fP option makes it
46     possible to search for patterns that span line boundaries. What defines a line
47     boundary is controlled by the \fB-N\fP (\fB--newline\fP) option.
48 nigel 75 .P
49 nigel 77 Patterns are limited to 8K or BUFSIZ characters, whichever is the greater.
50 ph10 286 BUFSIZ is defined in \fB<stdio.h>\fP. When there is more than one pattern
51     (specified by the use of \fB-e\fP and/or \fB-f\fP), each pattern is applied to
52     each line in the order in which they are defined, except that all the \fB-e\fP
53     patterns are tried before the \fB-f\fP patterns. As soon as one pattern matches
54 ph10 281 (or fails to match when \fB-v\fP is used), no further patterns are considered.
55 nigel 87 .P
56 ph10 281 When \fB--only-matching\fP, \fB--file-offsets\fP, or \fB--line-offsets\fP
57     is used, the output is the part of the line that matched (either shown
58     literally, or as an offset). In this case, scanning resumes immediately
59     following the match, so that further matches on the same line can be found.
60 ph10 286 If there are multiple patterns, they are all tried on the remainder of the
61     line. However, patterns that follow the one that matched are not tried on the
62 ph10 281 earlier part of the line.
63     .P
64 nigel 87 If the \fBLC_ALL\fP or \fBLC_CTYPE\fP environment variable is set,
65     \fBpcregrep\fP uses the value to set a locale when calling the PCRE library.
66     The \fB--locale\fP option can be used to override this.
67 nigel 75 .
68 ph10 286 .SH "SUPPORT FOR COMPRESSED FILES"
69     .rs
70     .sp
71     It is possible to compile \fBpcregrep\fP so that it uses \fBlibz\fP or
72     \fBlibbz2\fP to read files whose names end in \fB.gz\fP or \fB.bz2\fP,
73     respectively. You can find out whether your binary has support for one or both
74     of these file types by running it with the \fB--help\fP option. If the
75     appropriate support is not present, files are treated as plain text. The
76     standard input is always so treated.
77     .
78 nigel 49 .SH OPTIONS
79 nigel 63 .rs
80 nigel 49 .TP 10
81 nigel 77 \fB--\fP
82     This terminate the list of options. It is useful if the next item on the
83 nigel 87 command line starts with a hyphen but is not an option. This allows for the
84     processing of patterns and filenames that start with hyphens.
85 nigel 49 .TP
86 nigel 87 \fB-A\fP \fInumber\fP, \fB--after-context=\fP\fInumber\fP
87     Output \fInumber\fP lines of context after each matching line. If filenames
88     and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen separator is used instead of a
89     colon for the context lines. A line containing "--" is output between each
90 nigel 77 group of lines, unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The value
91     of \fInumber\fP is expected to be relatively small. However, \fBpcregrep\fP
92 nigel 87 guarantees to have up to 8K of following text available for context output.
93 nigel 77 .TP
94 nigel 87 \fB-B\fP \fInumber\fP, \fB--before-context=\fP\fInumber\fP
95     Output \fInumber\fP lines of context before each matching line. If filenames
96     and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen separator is used instead of a
97     colon for the context lines. A line containing "--" is output between each
98 nigel 77 group of lines, unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The value
99     of \fInumber\fP is expected to be relatively small. However, \fBpcregrep\fP
100 nigel 87 guarantees to have up to 8K of preceding text available for context output.
101 nigel 77 .TP
102 nigel 87 \fB-C\fP \fInumber\fP, \fB--context=\fP\fInumber\fP
103     Output \fInumber\fP lines of context both before and after each matching line.
104 nigel 77 This is equivalent to setting both \fB-A\fP and \fB-B\fP to the same value.
105     .TP
106 nigel 87 \fB-c\fP, \fB--count\fP
107     Do not output individual lines; instead just output a count of the number of
108     lines that would otherwise have been output. If several files are given, a
109     count is output for each of them. In this mode, the \fB-A\fP, \fB-B\fP, and
110     \fB-C\fP options are ignored.
111 nigel 49 .TP
112 nigel 87 \fB--colour\fP, \fB--color\fP
113     If this option is given without any data, it is equivalent to "--colour=auto".
114     If data is required, it must be given in the same shell item, separated by an
115     equals sign.
116     .TP
117     \fB--colour=\fP\fIvalue\fP, \fB--color=\fP\fIvalue\fP
118 ph10 376 This option specifies under what circumstances the parts of a line that matched
119     a pattern should be coloured in the output. By default, the output is not
120     coloured. The value (which is optional, see above) may be "never", "always", or
121     "auto". In the latter case, colouring happens only if the standard output is
122     connected to a terminal. The colour that is used can be specified by setting
123     the environment variable PCREGREP_COLOUR or PCREGREP_COLOR. The value of this
124     variable should be a string of two numbers, separated by a semicolon. They are
125     copied directly into the control string for setting colour on a terminal, so it
126     is your responsibility to ensure that they make sense. If neither of the
127     environment variables is set, the default is "1;31", which gives red.
128 nigel 87 .TP
129     \fB-D\fP \fIaction\fP, \fB--devices=\fP\fIaction\fP
130     If an input path is not a regular file or a directory, "action" specifies how
131     it is to be processed. Valid values are "read" (the default) or "skip"
132     (silently skip the path).
133     .TP
134     \fB-d\fP \fIaction\fP, \fB--directories=\fP\fIaction\fP
135     If an input path is a directory, "action" specifies how it is to be processed.
136     Valid values are "read" (the default), "recurse" (equivalent to the \fB-r\fP
137     option), or "skip" (silently skip the path). In the default case, directories
138     are read as if they were ordinary files. In some operating systems the effect
139     of reading a directory like this is an immediate end-of-file.
140     .TP
141 ph10 286 \fB-e\fP \fIpattern\fP, \fB--regex=\fP\fIpattern\fP, \fB--regexp=\fP\fIpattern\fP
142 ph10 279 Specify a pattern to be matched. This option can be used multiple times in
143     order to specify several patterns. It can also be used as a way of specifying a
144     single pattern that starts with a hyphen. When \fB-e\fP is used, no argument
145     pattern is taken from the command line; all arguments are treated as file
146     names. There is an overall maximum of 100 patterns. They are applied to each
147     line in the order in which they are defined until one matches (or fails to
148     match if \fB-v\fP is used). If \fB-f\fP is used with \fB-e\fP, the command line
149     patterns are matched first, followed by the patterns from the file, independent
150     of the order in which these options are specified. Note that multiple use of
151     \fB-e\fP is not the same as a single pattern with alternatives. For example,
152     X|Y finds the first character in a line that is X or Y, whereas if the two
153     patterns are given separately, \fBpcregrep\fP finds X if it is present, even if
154     it follows Y in the line. It finds Y only if there is no X in the line. This
155     really matters only if you are using \fB-o\fP to show the part(s) of the line
156     that matched.
157 nigel 87 .TP
158 nigel 77 \fB--exclude\fP=\fIpattern\fP
159     When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the files in a directory as a consequence of
160 ph10 324 the \fB-r\fP (recursive search) option, any regular files whose names match the
161 ph10 325 pattern are excluded. Subdirectories are not excluded by this option; they are
162     searched recursively, subject to the \fB--exclude_dir\fP and
163     \fB--include_dir\fP options. The pattern is a PCRE regular expression, and is
164     matched against the final component of the file name (not the entire path). If
165     a file name matches both \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP, it is excluded.
166     There is no short form for this option.
167 nigel 77 .TP
168 ph10 325 \fB--exclude_dir\fP=\fIpattern\fP
169     When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the contents of a directory as a consequence
170     of the \fB-r\fP (recursive search) option, any subdirectories whose names match
171     the pattern are excluded. (Note that the \fP--exclude\fP option does not affect
172     subdirectories.) The pattern is a PCRE regular expression, and is matched
173     against the final component of the name (not the entire path). If a
174     subdirectory name matches both \fB--include_dir\fP and \fB--exclude_dir\fP, it
175     is excluded. There is no short form for this option.
176     .TP
177 nigel 87 \fB-F\fP, \fB--fixed-strings\fP
178     Interpret each pattern as a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines,
179     instead of as a regular expression. The \fB-w\fP (match as a word) and \fB-x\fP
180     (match whole line) options can be used with \fB-F\fP. They apply to each of the
181     fixed strings. A line is selected if any of the fixed strings are found in it
182     (subject to \fB-w\fP or \fB-x\fP, if present).
183 nigel 53 .TP
184 nigel 87 \fB-f\fP \fIfilename\fP, \fB--file=\fP\fIfilename\fP
185     Read a number of patterns from the file, one per line, and match them against
186     each line of input. A data line is output if any of the patterns match it. The
187     filename can be given as "-" to refer to the standard input. When \fB-f\fP is
188     used, patterns specified on the command line using \fB-e\fP may also be
189     present; they are tested before the file's patterns. However, no other pattern
190     is taken from the command line; all arguments are treated as file names. There
191     is an overall maximum of 100 patterns. Trailing white space is removed from
192     each line, and blank lines are ignored. An empty file contains no patterns and
193 ph10 286 therefore matches nothing. See also the comments about multiple patterns versus
194 ph10 281 a single pattern with alternatives in the description of \fB-e\fP above.
195 nigel 49 .TP
196 ph10 280 \fB--file-offsets\fP
197     Instead of showing lines or parts of lines that match, show each match as an
198     offset from the start of the file and a length, separated by a comma. In this
199     mode, no context is shown. That is, the \fB-A\fP, \fB-B\fP, and \fB-C\fP
200     options are ignored. If there is more than one match in a line, each of them is
201     shown separately. This option is mutually exclusive with \fB--line-offsets\fP
202     and \fB--only-matching\fP.
203     .TP
204 nigel 87 \fB-H\fP, \fB--with-filename\fP
205     Force the inclusion of the filename at the start of output lines when searching
206     a single file. By default, the filename is not shown in this case. For matching
207 ph10 376 lines, the filename is followed by a colon; for context lines, a hyphen
208     separator is used. If a line number is also being output, it follows the file
209     name.
210 nigel 87 .TP
211     \fB-h\fP, \fB--no-filename\fP
212     Suppress the output filenames when searching multiple files. By default,
213     filenames are shown when multiple files are searched. For matching lines, the
214 ph10 376 filename is followed by a colon; for context lines, a hyphen separator is used.
215     If a line number is also being output, it follows the file name.
216 nigel 87 .TP
217     \fB--help\fP
218 ph10 286 Output a help message, giving brief details of the command options and file
219     type support, and then exit.
220 nigel 87 .TP
221     \fB-i\fP, \fB--ignore-case\fP
222 nigel 49 Ignore upper/lower case distinctions during comparisons.
223     .TP
224 nigel 77 \fB--include\fP=\fIpattern\fP
225     When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the files in a directory as a consequence of
226 ph10 324 the \fB-r\fP (recursive search) option, only those regular files whose names
227 ph10 325 match the pattern are included. Subdirectories are always included and searched
228     recursively, subject to the \fP--include_dir\fP and \fB--exclude_dir\fP
229     options. The pattern is a PCRE regular expression, and is matched against the
230     final component of the file name (not the entire path). If a file name matches
231     both \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP, it is excluded. There is no short
232     form for this option.
233 nigel 77 .TP
234 ph10 325 \fB--include_dir\fP=\fIpattern\fP
235     When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the contents of a directory as a consequence
236     of the \fB-r\fP (recursive search) option, only those subdirectories whose
237     names match the pattern are included. (Note that the \fB--include\fP option
238     does not affect subdirectories.) The pattern is a PCRE regular expression, and
239     is matched against the final component of the name (not the entire path). If a
240     subdirectory name matches both \fB--include_dir\fP and \fB--exclude_dir\fP, it
241     is excluded. There is no short form for this option.
242     .TP
243 nigel 87 \fB-L\fP, \fB--files-without-match\fP
244     Instead of outputting lines from the files, just output the names of the files
245     that do not contain any lines that would have been output. Each file name is
246     output once, on a separate line.
247 nigel 77 .TP
248 nigel 87 \fB-l\fP, \fB--files-with-matches\fP
249     Instead of outputting lines from the files, just output the names of the files
250     containing lines that would have been output. Each file name is output
251     once, on a separate line. Searching stops as soon as a matching line is found
252     in a file.
253 nigel 49 .TP
254 nigel 77 \fB--label\fP=\fIname\fP
255     This option supplies a name to be used for the standard input when file names
256 nigel 87 are being output. If not supplied, "(standard input)" is used. There is no
257 nigel 77 short form for this option.
258     .TP
259 ph10 280 \fB--line-offsets\fP
260 ph10 286 Instead of showing lines or parts of lines that match, show each match as a
261     line number, the offset from the start of the line, and a length. The line
262     number is terminated by a colon (as usual; see the \fB-n\fP option), and the
263 ph10 280 offset and length are separated by a comma. In this mode, no context is shown.
264     That is, the \fB-A\fP, \fB-B\fP, and \fB-C\fP options are ignored. If there is
265     more than one match in a line, each of them is shown separately. This option is
266     mutually exclusive with \fB--file-offsets\fP and \fB--only-matching\fP.
267     .TP
268 nigel 87 \fB--locale\fP=\fIlocale-name\fP
269     This option specifies a locale to be used for pattern matching. It overrides
270     the value in the \fBLC_ALL\fP or \fBLC_CTYPE\fP environment variables. If no
271     locale is specified, the PCRE library's default (usually the "C" locale) is
272     used. There is no short form for this option.
273     .TP
274     \fB-M\fP, \fB--multiline\fP
275 nigel 77 Allow patterns to match more than one line. When this option is given, patterns
276     may usefully contain literal newline characters and internal occurrences of ^
277     and $ characters. The output for any one match may consist of more than one
278     line. When this option is set, the PCRE library is called in "multiline" mode.
279     There is a limit to the number of lines that can be matched, imposed by the way
280     that \fBpcregrep\fP buffers the input file as it scans it. However,
281     \fBpcregrep\fP ensures that at least 8K characters or the rest of the document
282     (whichever is the shorter) are available for forward matching, and similarly
283     the previous 8K characters (or all the previous characters, if fewer than 8K)
284     are guaranteed to be available for lookbehind assertions.
285     .TP
286 nigel 91 \fB-N\fP \fInewline-type\fP, \fB--newline=\fP\fInewline-type\fP
287 ph10 149 The PCRE library supports five different conventions for indicating
288 nigel 91 the ends of lines. They are the single-character sequences CR (carriage return)
289 ph10 150 and LF (linefeed), the two-character sequence CRLF, an "anycrlf" convention,
290 ph10 149 which recognizes any of the preceding three types, and an "any" convention, in
291 nigel 93 which any Unicode line ending sequence is assumed to end a line. The Unicode
292     sequences are the three just mentioned, plus VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF
293     (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator, U+2028), and
294 ph10 149 PS (paragraph separator, U+2029).
295 nigel 93 .sp
296     When the PCRE library is built, a default line-ending sequence is specified.
297     This is normally the standard sequence for the operating system. Unless
298     otherwise specified by this option, \fBpcregrep\fP uses the library's default.
299 ph10 149 The possible values for this option are CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY. This
300     makes it possible to use \fBpcregrep\fP on files that have come from other
301     environments without having to modify their line endings. If the data that is
302     being scanned does not agree with the convention set by this option,
303     \fBpcregrep\fP may behave in strange ways.
304 nigel 91 .TP
305 nigel 87 \fB-n\fP, \fB--line-number\fP
306     Precede each output line by its line number in the file, followed by a colon
307 ph10 376 for matching lines or a hyphen for context lines. If the filename is also being
308     output, it precedes the line number. This option is forced if
309     \fB--line-offsets\fP is used.
310 nigel 49 .TP
311 nigel 87 \fB-o\fP, \fB--only-matching\fP
312     Show only the part of the line that matched a pattern. In this mode, no
313     context is shown. That is, the \fB-A\fP, \fB-B\fP, and \fB-C\fP options are
314 ph10 286 ignored. If there is more than one match in a line, each of them is shown
315     separately. If \fB-o\fP is combined with \fB-v\fP (invert the sense of the
316     match to find non-matching lines), no output is generated, but the return code
317     is set appropriately. This option is mutually exclusive with
318 ph10 280 \fB--file-offsets\fP and \fB--line-offsets\fP.
319 nigel 77 .TP
320 nigel 87 \fB-q\fP, \fB--quiet\fP
321     Work quietly, that is, display nothing except error messages. The exit
322     status indicates whether or not any matches were found.
323     .TP
324     \fB-r\fP, \fB--recursive\fP
325 nigel 77 If any given path is a directory, recursively scan the files it contains,
326 nigel 87 taking note of any \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP settings. By default, a
327     directory is read as a normal file; in some operating systems this gives an
328     immediate end-of-file. This option is a shorthand for setting the \fB-d\fP
329     option to "recurse".
330 nigel 53 .TP
331 nigel 87 \fB-s\fP, \fB--no-messages\fP
332 nigel 77 Suppress error messages about non-existent or unreadable files. Such files are
333     quietly skipped. However, the return code is still 2, even if matches were
334     found in other files.
335 nigel 49 .TP
336 nigel 87 \fB-u\fP, \fB--utf-8\fP
337 nigel 63 Operate in UTF-8 mode. This option is available only if PCRE has been compiled
338 nigel 87 with UTF-8 support. Both patterns and subject lines must be valid strings of
339     UTF-8 characters.
340 nigel 63 .TP
341 nigel 87 \fB-V\fP, \fB--version\fP
342 nigel 77 Write the version numbers of \fBpcregrep\fP and the PCRE library that is being
343     used to the standard error stream.
344     .TP
345 nigel 87 \fB-v\fP, \fB--invert-match\fP
346     Invert the sense of the match, so that lines which do \fInot\fP match any of
347     the patterns are the ones that are found.
348 nigel 49 .TP
349 nigel 87 \fB-w\fP, \fB--word-regex\fP, \fB--word-regexp\fP
350     Force the patterns to match only whole words. This is equivalent to having \eb
351 nigel 77 at the start and end of the pattern.
352     .TP
353 ph10 148 \fB-x\fP, \fB--line-regex\fP, \fB--line-regexp\fP
354 nigel 87 Force the patterns to be anchored (each must start matching at the beginning of
355     a line) and in addition, require them to match entire lines. This is
356 nigel 49 equivalent to having ^ and $ characters at the start and end of each
357 nigel 87 alternative branch in every pattern.
358 nigel 75 .
359 nigel 87 .
360     .SH "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES"
361 nigel 63 .rs
362     .sp
363 nigel 87 The environment variables \fBLC_ALL\fP and \fBLC_CTYPE\fP are examined, in that
364     order, for a locale. The first one that is set is used. This can be overridden
365     by the \fB--locale\fP option. If no locale is set, the PCRE library's default
366     (usually the "C" locale) is used.
367     .
368     .
369 nigel 91 .SH "NEWLINES"
370     .rs
371     .sp
372     The \fB-N\fP (\fB--newline\fP) option allows \fBpcregrep\fP to scan files with
373     different newline conventions from the default. However, the setting of this
374     option does not affect the way in which \fBpcregrep\fP writes information to
375     the standard error and output streams. It uses the string "\en" in C
376     \fBprintf()\fP calls to indicate newlines, relying on the C I/O library to
377     convert this to an appropriate sequence if the output is sent to a file.
378     .
379     .
380 nigel 87 .SH "OPTIONS COMPATIBILITY"
381     .rs
382 nigel 75 .sp
383 nigel 87 The majority of short and long forms of \fBpcregrep\fP's options are the same
384     as in the GNU \fBgrep\fP program. Any long option of the form
385     \fB--xxx-regexp\fP (GNU terminology) is also available as \fB--xxx-regex\fP
386     (PCRE terminology). However, the \fB--locale\fP, \fB-M\fP, \fB--multiline\fP,
387     \fB-u\fP, and \fB--utf-8\fP options are specific to \fBpcregrep\fP.
388 nigel 77 .
389 nigel 87 .
390 nigel 77 .SH "OPTIONS WITH DATA"
391     .rs
392 nigel 75 .sp
393 nigel 77 There are four different ways in which an option with data can be specified.
394     If a short form option is used, the data may follow immediately, or in the next
395     command line item. For example:
396     .sp
397     -f/some/file
398     -f /some/file
399     .sp
400     If a long form option is used, the data may appear in the same command line
401 nigel 87 item, separated by an equals character, or (with one exception) it may appear
402     in the next command line item. For example:
403 nigel 77 .sp
404     --file=/some/file
405     --file /some/file
406     .sp
407 nigel 87 Note, however, that if you want to supply a file name beginning with ~ as data
408     in a shell command, and have the shell expand ~ to a home directory, you must
409     separate the file name from the option, because the shell does not treat ~
410     specially unless it is at the start of an item.
411     .P
412     The exception to the above is the \fB--colour\fP (or \fB--color\fP) option,
413     for which the data is optional. If this option does have data, it must be given
414     in the first form, using an equals character. Otherwise it will be assumed that
415     it has no data.
416 nigel 75 .
417 nigel 87 .
418 nigel 93 .SH "MATCHING ERRORS"
419 nigel 87 .rs
420     .sp
421     It is possible to supply a regular expression that takes a very long time to
422     fail to match certain lines. Such patterns normally involve nested indefinite
423     repeats, for example: (a+)*\ed when matched against a line of a's with no final
424     digit. The PCRE matching function has a resource limit that causes it to abort
425     in these circumstances. If this happens, \fBpcregrep\fP outputs an error
426     message and the line that caused the problem to the standard error stream. If
427     there are more than 20 such errors, \fBpcregrep\fP gives up.
428     .
429     .
430 nigel 49 .SH DIAGNOSTICS
431 nigel 63 .rs
432     .sp
433 nigel 49 Exit status is 0 if any matches were found, 1 if no matches were found, and 2
434 nigel 77 for syntax errors and non-existent or inacessible files (even if matches were
435 nigel 87 found in other files) or too many matching errors. Using the \fB-s\fP option to
436     suppress error messages about inaccessble files does not affect the return
437     code.
438 nigel 75 .
439     .
440 nigel 93 .SH "SEE ALSO"
441     .rs
442     .sp
443     \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcretest\fP(1).
444     .
445     .
446 nigel 49 .SH AUTHOR
447 nigel 63 .rs
448     .sp
449 ph10 99 .nf
450 nigel 77 Philip Hazel
451 nigel 63 University Computing Service
452 nigel 93 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
453 ph10 99 .fi
454     .
455     .
456     .SH REVISION
457     .rs
458     .sp
459     .nf
460 ph10 376 Last updated: 01 March 2009
461     Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.
462 ph10 99 .fi

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