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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4  *******************************************************************************  The latest release of PCRE is always available from
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSIONS BEFORE 2.00           *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Please note that there has been a change in the API such that a larger      *  
 * ovector is required at matching time, to provide some additional workspace. *  
 * The new man page has details. This change was necessary in order to support *  
 * some of the new functionality in Perl 5.005.                                *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.00                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Another (I hope this is the last!) change has been made to the API for the  *  
 * pcre_compile() function. An additional argument has been added to make it   *  
 * possible to pass over a pointer to character tables built in the current    *  
 * locale by pcre_maketables(). To use the default tables, this new arguement  *  
 * should be passed as NULL.                                                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *           IMPORTANT FOR THOSE UPGRADING FROM VERSION 2.05                   *  
 *                                                                             *  
 * Yet another (and again I hope this really is the last) change has been made *  
 * to the API for the pcre_exec() function. An additional argument has been    *  
 * added to make it possible to start the match other than at the start of the *  
 * subject string. This is important if there are lookbehinds. The new man     *  
 * page has the details, but you just want to convert existing programs, all   *  
 * you need to do is to stick in a new fifth argument to pcre_exec(), with a   *  
 * value of zero. For example, change                                          *  
 *                                                                             *  
 *   pcre_exec(pattern, extra, subject, length, options, ovec, ovecsize)       *  
 * to                                                                          *  
 *   pcre_exec(pattern, extra, subject, length, 0, options, ovec, ovecsize)    *  
 *******************************************************************************  
5    
6      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
7    
8  The distribution should contain the following files:  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
9    
10    PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on
11    the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix. Note that this
12    just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions
13    themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file
14    for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is
15    regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of
16    that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that
17    uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.
18    
19    
20    Contributions by users of PCRE
21    ------------------------------
22    
23    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
24    
25      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
26    
27    where there is also a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are.
28    Several of them provide support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
29    Windows systems (I myself do not use Windows). Some are complete in themselves;
30    others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
31    
32    
33    Building PCRE on a Unix system
34    ------------------------------
35    
36    To build PCRE on a Unix system, first run the "configure" command from the PCRE
37    distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory where
38    you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU "autoconf"
39    configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in INSTALL.
40    
41    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
42    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient, but the
43    usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example,
44    
45    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
46    
47    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
48    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
49    instead of the default /usr/local.
50    
51    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
52    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
53    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
54    
55    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
56    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
57    
58    If you want to make use of the experimential, incomplete support for UTF-8
59    character strings in PCRE, you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure"
60    command. Without it, the code for handling UTF-8 is not included in the
61    library. (Even when included, it still has to be enabled by an option at run
62    time.)
63    
64    The "configure" script builds five files:
65    
66    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
67    . Makefile is built by copying Makefile.in and making substitutions.
68    . config.h is built by copying config.in and making substitutions.
69    . pcre-config is built by copying pcre-config.in and making substitutions.
70    . RunTest is a script for running tests
71    
72    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries called
73    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
74    command. You can use "make install" to copy these, the public header files
75    pcre.h and pcreposix.h, and the man pages to appropriate live directories on
76    your system, in the normal way.
77    
78    Running "make install" also installs the command pcre-config, which can be used
79    to recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For
80    example,
81    
82      pcre-config --version
83    
84    prints the version number, and
85    
86     pcre-config --libs
87    
88    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code  outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
89    LICENCE           conditions for the use of PCRE  included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
90    Makefile          for building PCRE in Unix systems  having to remember too many details.
91    README            this file  
92    RunTest           a Unix shell script for running tests  There is one esoteric feature that is controlled by "configure". It concerns
93    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  the character value used for "newline", and is something that you probably do
94    pcre.3            man page source for the functions  not want to change on a Unix system. The default is to use whatever value your
95    pcre.3.txt        plain text version  compiler gives to '\n'. By using --enable-newline-is-cr or
96    pcre.3.html       HTML version  --enable-newline-is-lf you can force the value to be CR (13) or LF (10) if you
97    pcreposix.3       man page source for the POSIX wrapper API  really want to.
98    pcreposix.3.txt   plain text version  
99    pcreposix.3.HTML  HTML version  
100    dftables.c        auxiliary program for building chartables.c  Shared libraries on Unix systems
101    get.c             )  --------------------------------
102    maketables.c      )  
103    study.c           ) source of  The default distribution builds PCRE as two shared libraries and two static
104    pcre.c            )   the functions  libraries, as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared
105    pcreposix.c       )  library support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
106    pcre.h            header for the external API  "configure" process.
107    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
108    internal.h        header for internal use  The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
109    pcretest.c        test program  libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
110    pgrep.1           man page source for pgrep  built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
111    pgrep.1.txt       plain text version  libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
112    pgrep.1.HTML      HTML version  you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
113    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
114    perltest          Perl test program  installed themselves. However, the versions left in the source directory still
115    testinput1        test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005  use the uninstalled libraries.
116    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
117    testinput3        test data, compatible with Perl 5.005  To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
118    testinput4        test data for locale-specific tests  configuring it. For example
119    testoutput1       test results corresponding to testinput1  
120    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
121    testoutput3       test results corresponding to testinput3  
122    testoutput4       test results corresponding to testinput4  Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
123    build only shared libraries.
124  To build PCRE on a Unix system, first edit Makefile for your system. It is a  
125  fairly simple make file, and there are some comments near the top, after the  
126  text "On a Unix system". Then run "make". It builds two libraries called  Building on non-Unix systems
127  libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a, a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep  ----------------------------
128  command. You can use "make install" to copy these, and the public header file  
129  pcre.h, to appropriate live directories on your system. These installation  For a non-Unix system, read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE. PCRE has
130  directories are defined at the top of the Makefile, and you should edit them if  been compiled on Windows systems and on Macintoshes, but I don't know the
131  necessary.  details because I don't use those systems. It should be straightforward to
132    build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler, because it uses only
133  For a non-Unix system, read the comments at the top of Makefile, which give  Standard C functions.
134  some hints on what needs to be done. PCRE has been compiled on Windows systems  
135  and on Macintoshes, but I don't know the details as I don't use those systems.  
136  It should be straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C  Testing PCRE
137  compiler.  ------------
138    
139  To test PCRE, run the RunTest script in the pcre directory. This can also be  To test PCRE on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is created by the
140  run by "make runtest". It runs the pcretest test program (which is documented  configuring process. (This can also be run by "make runtest", "make check", or
141  below) on each of the testinput files in turn, and compares the output with the  "make test".) For other systems, see the instruction in NON-UNIX-USE.
142  contents of the corresponding testoutput file. A file called testtry is used to  
143  hold the output from pcretest. To run pcretest on just one of the test files,  The script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in the doc
144  give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:  directory) on each of the testinput files (in the testdata directory) in turn,
145    and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput file.
146    A file called testtry is used to hold the output from pcretest. To run pcretest
147    on just one of the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for
148    example:
149    
150    RunTest 3    RunTest 3
151    
152  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest  The first and third test files can also be fed directly into the perltest
153  script to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the  script to check that Perl gives the same results. The third file requires the
154  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the  additional features of release 5.005, which is why it is kept separate from the
155  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 is  main test input, which needs only Perl 5.004. In the long run, when 5.005 (or
156  widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.  higher) is widespread, these two test files may get amalgamated.
157    
158  The second set of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), pcre_copy_substring(),  The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
159  pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error detection and run-time  pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
160  flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
161    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flag to check some of the internals of
162    pcre_compile().
163    
164    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
165    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
166    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
167    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
168    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
169    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
170    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
171    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
172    bug in PCRE.
173    
174  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a  The fourth set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
175  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the  set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
# Line 118  output to say why. If running this test Line 184  output to say why. If running this test
184  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,  in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
185  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.  despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
186    
187  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  The fifth test checks the experimental, incomplete UTF-8 support. It is not run
188  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  automatically unless PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. This file can be fed
189  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  directly to the perltest8 script, which requires Perl 5.6 or higher. The sixth
190  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  file tests internal UTF-8 features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
 for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  
 regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
 that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
 uses the POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  
191    
192    
193  Character tables  Character tables
# Line 167  You should not alter the set of characte Line 229  You should not alter the set of characte
229  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
230    
231    
232  The pcretest program  Manifest
233  --------------------  --------
234    
235  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  The distribution should contain the following files:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
   
 If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters other than backslash, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  
 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  
 included within it. See the testinput files for many examples. It is possible  
 to include the delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example  
   
   /abc\/def/  
   
 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  
 delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  
 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  
 example,  
   
   /abc/\  
   
 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  
 way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  
 backslash, because  
   
   /abc\/  
236    
237  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  (A) The actual source files of the PCRE library functions and their
238  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.      headers:
239    
240  The pattern may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS,    dftables.c            auxiliary program for building chartables.c
241  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. For    get.c                 )
242  example:    maketables.c          )
243      study.c               ) source of
244      pcre.c                )   the functions
245      pcreposix.c           )
246      pcre.in               "source" for the header for the external API; pcre.h
247                              is built from this by "configure"
248      pcreposix.h           header for the external POSIX wrapper API
249      internal.h            header for internal use
250      config.in             template for config.h, which is built by configure
251    
252    (B) Auxiliary files:
253    
254      AUTHORS               information about the author of PCRE
255      ChangeLog             log of changes to the code
256      INSTALL               generic installation instructions
257      LICENCE               conditions for the use of PCRE
258      COPYING               the same, using GNU's standard name
259      Makefile.in           template for Unix Makefile, which is built by configure
260      NEWS                  important changes in this release
261      NON-UNIX-USE          notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
262      README                this file
263      RunTest.in            template for a Unix shell script for running tests
264      config.guess          ) files used by libtool,
265      config.sub            )   used only when building a shared library
266      configure             a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
267      configure.in          the autoconf input used to build configure
268      doc/Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding
269      doc/pcre.3            man page source for the PCRE functions
270      doc/pcre.html         HTML version
271      doc/pcre.txt          plain text version
272      doc/pcreposix.3       man page source for the POSIX wrapper API
273      doc/pcreposix.html    HTML version
274      doc/pcreposix.txt     plain text version
275      doc/pcretest.txt      documentation of test program
276      doc/perltest.txt      documentation of Perl test program
277      doc/pcregrep.1        man page source for the pcregrep utility
278      doc/pcregrep.html     HTML version
279      doc/pcregrep.txt      plain text version
280      install-sh            a shell script for installing files
281      ltmain.sh             file used to build a libtool script
282      pcretest.c            comprehensive test program
283      pcredemo.c            simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
284      perltest              Perl test program
285      perltest8             Perl test program for UTF-8 tests
286      pcregrep.c            source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
287      pcre-config.in        source of script which retains PCRE information
288      testdata/testinput1   test data, compatible with Perl 5.004 and 5.005
289      testdata/testinput2   test data for error messages and non-Perl things
290      testdata/testinput3   test data, compatible with Perl 5.005
291      testdata/testinput4   test data for locale-specific tests
292      testdata/testinput5   test data for UTF-8 tests compatible with Perl 5.6
293      testdata/testinput6   test data for other UTF-8 tests
294      testdata/testoutput1  test results corresponding to testinput1
295      testdata/testoutput2  test results corresponding to testinput2
296      testdata/testoutput3  test results corresponding to testinput3
297      testdata/testoutput4  test results corresponding to testinput4
298      testdata/testoutput5  test results corresponding to testinput5
299      testdata/testoutput6  test results corresponding to testinput6
300    
301    /caseless/i  (C) Auxiliary files for Win32 DLL
302    
303  These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are    dll.mk
304  others which set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl: /A,    pcre.def
 /E, and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
   
 Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  
 by the /g or /G modifier. The /g modifier behaves similarly to the way it does  
 in Perl. After finding a match, PCRE is called again to search the remainder of  
 the subject string. The difference between /g and /G is that the former uses  
 the start_offset argument to pcre_exec() to start searching at a new point  
 within the entire string, whereas the latter passes over a shortened substring.  
 This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern begins with a  
 lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).  
   
 There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way pcretest  
 operates.  
   
 The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that matched  
 the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of the  
 subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains multiple  
 copies of the same substring.  
   
 The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
   
   /pattern/Lfr  
   
 For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L modifier, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
   
 The /I modifier requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_info() after compiling an expression, and outputting  
 the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results of that  
 are also output.  
   
 The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes  
 the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation.  
   
 The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
 The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  
 pattern to be output.  
   
 Finally, the /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except /i,  
 /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is  
 set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always,  
 and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Cdd   call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \Gdd   call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \L     call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match  
   \N     pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   PCRE version 2.06 08-Jun-1999  
   
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  
 escapes. If the pattern has the /+ modifier, then the output for substring 0 is  
 followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:  
   
     re> /cat/+  
   data> cataract  
    0: cat  
    0+ aract  
   
 If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive matching  
 attempts are output in sequence, like this:  
   
     re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g  
   data> Mississippi  
    0: iss  
    1: ss  
    0: iss  
    1: ss  
    0: ipp  
    1: pp  
   
 "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  
   
 If any of \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that is successfully  
 matched, the substrings extracted by the convenience functions are output with  
 C, G, or L after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addition to  
 the normal full list. The string length (that is, the return from the  
 extraction function) is given in parentheses after each string for \C and \G.  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 compilation.  
   
 If the option -m is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled. It is equivalent to adding /M to each  
 regular expression. For compatibility with earlier versions of pcretest, -s is  
 a synonym for -m.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 20000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 20000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 pcretest.c  
   
   
   
 The perltest program  
 --------------------  
   
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case modifiers. The  
 contents of testinput1 and testinput3 meet this condition.  
   
 The data lines are processed as Perl double-quoted strings, so if they contain  
 " \ $ or @ characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such  
 characters in testinput1 and testinput3 are escaped so that they can be used  
 for perltest as well as for pcretest, and the special upper case modifiers such  
 as /A that pcretest recognizes are not used in these files. The output should  
 be identical, apart from the initial identifying banner.  
   
 The testinput2 and testinput4 files are not suitable for feeding to perltest,  
 since they do make use of the special upper case modifiers and escapes that  
 pcretest uses to test some features of PCRE. The first of these files also  
 contains malformed regular expressions, in order to check that PCRE diagnoses  
 them correctly.  
305    
306  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>
307  July 1999  August 2001

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