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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available from
5    
6      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
7    
8    There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
9    
10    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code    pcre-dev@exim.org
11    Makefile          for building PCRE  
12    Performance       notes on performance  Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
13    README            this file  The contents of this README file are:
14    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  
15    pcre.3            man page for the functions    The PCRE APIs
16    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API    Documentation for PCRE
17    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c    Contributions by users of PCRE
18    study.c           ) source of    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
19    pcre.c            )   the functions    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
20    pcreposix.c       )    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
21    pcre.h            header for the external API    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
22    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
23    internal.h        header for internal use    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
24    pcretest.c        test program    Making new tarballs
25    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep    Testing PCRE
26    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE    Character tables
27    perltest          Perl test program    File manifest
28    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl  
29    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
30    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  The PCRE APIs
31    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  -------------
32    
33  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)  PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution also includes a
34  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,  set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details), courtesy
35  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.  of Google Inc.
36    
37  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with  In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
38  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  regular expression API (see the pcreposix man page). These end up in the
39    library called libpcreposix. Note that this just provides a POSIX calling
40    pcretest testinput some.file  interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves still follow Perl syntax
41    diff some.file testoutput  and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does not give full access to
42    all of PCRE's facilities.
43  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  
44  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
45    official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
46    pcretest -i testinput2 some.file  with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
47    diff some.file testoutput2  an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
48    renamed or pointed at by a link.
49  The make target "runtest" runs both these tests, using the file "testtry" to  
50  store the intermediate output, deleting it at the end if all goes well.  If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
51    library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
52  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
53  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
54  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
55  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  
56    One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
57  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
58  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
59  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
60  /usr/local/man/man3).  you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
61    new names.
62  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
63  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  
64  /usr/local/man/man1).  Documentation for PCRE
65    ----------------------
66  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  
67  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
68  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
69  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
70  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  documentation is supplied in two other forms:
71  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
72  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that    1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
73  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.       doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
74         concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
75         those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
76         forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
77         These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
78         similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
79         <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
80    
81      2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
82         in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
83         doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
84    
85    
86    Contributions by users of PCRE
87    ------------------------------
88    
89    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
90    
91      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
92    
93    There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
94    complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
95    Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
96    contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
97    Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
98    in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
99    
100    
101    Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
102    ---------------------------------
103    
104    For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
105    though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
106    able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
107    configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility of CMake's
108    CMakeSetup. It creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
109    
110    PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
111    straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
112    library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
113    
114    
115    Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
116    ----------------------------------
117    
118    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
119    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
120    
121    The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
122    make install" process. There is also some experimental support for "cmake" in
123    the PCRE distribution, but it is incomplete and not documented. However, if you
124    are a "cmake" user, you might want to try it.
125    
126    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
127    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
128    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
129    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
130    the file INSTALL.
131    
132    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
133    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
134    the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
135    
136    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
137    
138    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
139    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
140    instead of the default /usr/local.
141    
142    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
143    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
144    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
145    
146    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
147    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
148    
149    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
150    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
151    does not have any features to support this.
152    
153    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
154    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
155    
156    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
157      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
158      it will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds,
159      it will try to build the C++ wrapper.
160    
161    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
162      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
163      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
164      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
165    
166    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
167      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
168      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
169      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
170      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
171      supported.
172    
173    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
174      of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
175      end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
176      of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
177      is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
178      newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
179      or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
180      --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
181    
182      If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
183      the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
184      LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
185      to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
186      --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
187      failures.
188    
189    . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
190      sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
191      be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
192      to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
193      --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
194    
195    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
196      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
197      them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
198    
199      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
200    
201      on the "configure" command.
202    
203    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
204      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
205      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
206    
207      --with-match-limit=500000
208    
209      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
210      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
211      pcreapi man page.
212    
213    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
214      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
215      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
216    
217      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
218    
219      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
220      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
221      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
222    
223    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
224      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
225      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
226      ever to be necessary. Increasing the internal link size will reduce
227      performance.
228    
229    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
230      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
231      obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
232      pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
233      build PCRE like this, use
234    
235      --disable-stack-for-recursion
236    
237      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
238      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
239      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
240      use deeply nested recursion. There is a discussion about stack sizes in the
241      pcrestack man page.
242    
243    . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
244      whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
245      tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
246    
247      --enable-rebuild-chartables
248    
249      a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
250      you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
251      not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
252      pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
253    
254    . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
255      default character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
256    
257      --enable-ebcdic
258    
259      This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above).
260    
261    . It is possible to compile pcregrep to use libz and/or libbz2, in order to
262      read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by specifying one or both of
263    
264      --enable-pcregrep-libz
265      --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
266    
267      Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
268    
269    . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
270      library, by specifying
271    
272      --enable-pcretest-libreadline
273    
274      If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
275      the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
276      Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
277      pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
278    
279    The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
280    
281    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
282    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
283    . pcre.h is the public PCRE header file
284    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
285    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
286    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
287    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the basic C library
288    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
289    
290    Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under
291    the names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for the
292    benefit of those who have to built PCRE without the benefit of "configure". If
293    you use "configure", the .generic versions are not used.
294    
295    If a C++ compiler is found, the following files are also built:
296    
297    . libpcrecpp.pc is data for the pkg-config command
298    . pcrecpparg.h is a header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
299    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
300    
301    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
302    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
303    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
304    
305    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
306    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, a demonstration
307    program called pcredemo, and the pcregrep command. If a C++ compiler was found
308    on your system, "make" also builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
309    libpcrecpp, and some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
310    pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest. Building the C++ wrapper
311    can be disabled by adding --disable-cpp to the "configure" command.
312    
313    The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
314    tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
315    
316    You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
317    system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
318    <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
319    
320      Commands (bin):
321        pcretest
322        pcregrep
323        pcre-config
324    
325      Libraries (lib):
326        libpcre
327        libpcreposix
328        libpcrecpp (if C++ support is enabled)
329    
330      Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
331        libpcre.pc
332        libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
333    
334      Header files (include):
335        pcre.h
336        pcreposix.h
337        pcre_scanner.h      )
338        pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
339        pcrecpp.h           )
340        pcrecpparg.h        )
341    
342      Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
343        pcregrep.1
344        pcretest.1
345        pcre.3
346        pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
347    
348      HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
349        index.html
350        *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
351    
352      Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
353        AUTHORS
354        COPYING
355        ChangeLog
356        LICENCE
357        NEWS
358        README
359        pcre.txt       (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
360        pcretest.txt   the pcretest man page
361        pcregrep.txt   the pcregrep man page
362    
363    Note that the pcredemo program that is built by "configure" is *not* installed
364    anywhere. It is a demonstration for programmers wanting to use PCRE.
365    
366    If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
367    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
368    remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
369    
370    
371    Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
372    ---------------------------------------------------------
373    
374    Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
375    recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
376    
377      pcre-config --version
378    
379    prints the version number, and
380    
381      pcre-config --libs
382    
383    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
384    included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
385    having to remember too many details.
386    
387    The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
388    about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
389    single command is used. For example:
390    
391      pkg-config --cflags pcre
392    
393    The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
394    <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
395    
396    
397    Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
398    -------------------------------------
399    
400    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
401    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
402    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
403    "configure" process.
404    
405    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
406    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
407    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
408    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
409    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
410    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
411    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
412    use the uninstalled libraries.
413    
414    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
415    configuring it. For example:
416    
417    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
418    
419    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
420    build only shared libraries.
421    
422    
423    Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
424    ------------------------------------
425    
426    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
427    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
428    specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
429    file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
430    character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
431    because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
432    compiler.
433    
434    When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
435    by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
436    that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
437    a problem.
438    
439    If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
440    move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
441    run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
442    Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
443    
444    
445    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
446    ----------------------------------
447    
448    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
449    "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
450    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
451    
452    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
453    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
454    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
455    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
456    running the "configure" script:
457    
458      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
459    
460    
461    Making new tarballs
462    -------------------
463    
464    The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
465    zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
466    build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
467    
468    If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
469    should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
470    script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
471    
472    
473    Testing PCRE
474    ------------
475    
476    To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
477    created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
478    that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
479    built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
480    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built.
481    
482    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
483    "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
484    
485    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
486    own man page) on each of the testinput files in the testdata directory in
487    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
488    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
489    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
490    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
491    
492      RunTest 2
493    
494    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to
495    check that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is
496    in the first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE
497    version.
498    
499    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
500    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
501    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
502    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
503    pcre_compile().
504    
505    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
506    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
507    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
508    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
509    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
510    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
511    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
512    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
513    bug in PCRE.
514    
515    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
516    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
517    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
518    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
519    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
520    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
521    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
522    
523      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
524    
525    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
526    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
527    
528    [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
529    work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
530    RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
531    Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
532    document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
533    
534    The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
535    PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
536    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
537    provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
538    commented in the script, can be be used.)
539    
540    The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
541    features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
542    
543    The sixth test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it not
544    run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
545    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
546    
547    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
548    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
549    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
550    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
551    
552    
553  Character tables  Character tables
554  ----------------  ----------------
555    
556  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
557  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
558  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
559  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
560  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
561  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
562  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
563  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
564  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
565    tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
566  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
567  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
568  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
569  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
570  represent character classes.  your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
571    the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
572    you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
573    automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
574    pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
575    tables.
576    
577    When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
578    it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
579    attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
580    system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
581    set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
582    locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
583    program by hand with the -L option. For example:
584    
585      ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
586    
587    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
588    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
589    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
590    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
591    than 256.
592    
593  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
594  follows:  follows:
595    
596      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 102  You should not alter the set of characte Line 604  You should not alter the set of characte
604  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
605    
606    
607  The pcretest program  File manifest
608  --------------------  -------------
609    
610    The distribution should contain the following files:
611    
612  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
613    
614  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
615  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file                              when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
   
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
   
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
   
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
   
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
   
   
   
 The perltest program  
 --------------------  
   
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
   
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
   
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
616    
617  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
618  October 1997                              coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
619                                specified, by copying to pcre_chartables.c
620    
621      pcreposix.c             )
622      pcre_compile.c          )
623      pcre_config.c           )
624      pcre_dfa_exec.c         )
625      pcre_exec.c             )
626      pcre_fullinfo.c         )
627      pcre_get.c              ) sources for the functions in the library,
628      pcre_globals.c          )   and some internal functions that they use
629      pcre_info.c             )
630      pcre_maketables.c       )
631      pcre_newline.c          )
632      pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
633      pcre_refcount.c         )
634      pcre_study.c            )
635      pcre_tables.c           )
636      pcre_try_flipped.c      )
637      pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c  )
638      pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
639      pcre_version.c          )
640      pcre_xclass.c           )
641      pcre_printint.src       ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest,
642                              )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
643      pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
644      pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
645      pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
646      ucp.h                   ) headers concerned with
647      ucpinternal.h           )   Unicode property handling
648      ucptable.h              ) (this one is the data table)
649    
650      config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
651    
652      pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
653      pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
654      pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
655      pcrecpp.cc              )
656      pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
657    
658      pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
659                                C++ stringpiece functions
660      pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
661    
662    (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
663    
664      pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
665      pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
666      pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
667    
668    (C) Auxiliary files:
669    
670      132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
671      AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
672      ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
673      CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
674      Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
675      HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
676      INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
677      LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
678      COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
679      Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
680                              )   "configure"
681      Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
682                              )   Makefile.in
683      NEWS                    important changes in this release
684      NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
685      PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
686      README                  this file
687      RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
688      RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
689      aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
690      config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
691      config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
692      configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
693      configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
694                              )   "configure" and config.h
695      depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
696                              )   automake
697      doc/*.3                 man page sources for the PCRE functions
698      doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
699      doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
700      doc/html/*              HTML documentation
701      doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
702      doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
703      doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
704      install-sh              a shell script for installing files
705      libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
706      libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
707      ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
708      missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
709                              )   installing, generated by automake
710      mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
711      perltest.pl             Perl test program
712      pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
713      pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
714      pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
715      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
716      testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
717      testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
718      testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
719    
720    (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
721    
722      CMakeLists.txt
723      config-cmake.h.in
724    
725    (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
726    
727      makevp.bat
728      makevp_c.txt
729      makevp_l.txt
730      pcregexp.pas
731    
732    (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
733    
734      pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
735                              )   for use in non-"configure" environments
736      config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
737                              )   environments
738    
739    (F) Miscellaneous
740    
741      RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
742    
743    Philip Hazel
744    Email local part: ph10
745    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
746    Last updated: 18 December 2007

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