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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available from
5    
6      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
7    
8    Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
9    
10    
11    The PCRE APIs
12    -------------
13    
14    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution now includes a
15    set of C++ wrapper functions, courtesy of Google Inc. (see the pcrecpp man page
16    for details).
17    
18    Also included are a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
19    API. These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
20    provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions themselves
21    still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file for the POSIX-style
22    functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is regex.h, but I
23    didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of that name by
24    distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that uses the
25    POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.
26    
27    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
28    library installed on your system, you must take care when linking programs to
29    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
30    up the "real" POSIX functions of the same name.
31    
32    
33    Documentation for PCRE
34    ----------------------
35    
36    If you install PCRE in the normal way, you will end up with an installed set of
37    man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is called "pcre"
38    lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE documentation is
39    supplied in two other forms; however, as there is no standard place to install
40    them, they are left in the doc directory of the unpacked source distribution.
41    These forms are:
42    
43      1. Files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and doc/pcretest.txt. The
44         first of these is a concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3
45         man pages except those that summarize individual functions. The other two
46         are the text forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and
47         pcretest commands. Text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text
48         editors or similar tools.
49    
50      2. A subdirectory called doc/html contains all the documentation in HTML
51         form, hyperlinked in various ways, and rooted in a file called
52         doc/index.html.
53    
54    
55    Contributions by users of PCRE
56    ------------------------------
57    
58    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
59    
60      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
61    
62    where there is also a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are.
63    Several of them provide support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
64    Windows systems (I myself do not use Windows). Some are complete in themselves;
65    others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
66    
67    
68    Building PCRE on a Unix-like system
69    -----------------------------------
70    
71    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
72    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
73    
74    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
75    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
76    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
77    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
78    INSTALL.
79    
80    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
81    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient, but the
82    usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
83    
84    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
85    
86    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
87    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
88    instead of the default /usr/local.
89    
90    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
91    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
92    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
93    
94    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
95    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
96    
97    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
98    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
99    does not have any features to support this.
100    
101    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
102    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
103    
104    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
105      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
106      will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it
107      will try to build the C++ wrapper.
108    
109    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
110      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
111      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
112      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
113    
114    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
115      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
116      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
117      command. This adds about 90K to the size of the library (in the form of a
118      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
119      supported.
120    
121    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF as the newline character,
122      instead of whatever your compiler uses for "\n", by adding --newline-is-cr or
123      --newline-is-lf to the "configure" command, respectively. Only do this if you
124      really understand what you are doing. On traditional Unix-like systems, the
125      newline character is LF.
126    
127    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
128      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
129      them. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
130    
131      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
132    
133      on the "configure" command.
134    
135    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
136      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
137      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
138    
139      --with-match-limit=500000
140    
141      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
142      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is discussion on the pcreapi
143      man page.
144    
145    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
146      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
147      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
148      ever to be necessary. If you build PCRE with an increased link size, test 2
149      (and 5 if you are using UTF-8) will fail. Part of the output of these tests
150      is a representation of the compiled pattern, and this changes with the link
151      size.
152    
153    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
154      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses blocks of data
155      from the heap via special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and pcre_stack_free()
156      to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To build PCRE like
157      this, use
158    
159      --disable-stack-for-recursion
160    
161      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
162      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
163      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
164      use deeply nested recursion.
165    
166    The "configure" script builds eight files for the basic C library:
167    
168    . pcre.h is the header file for C programs that call PCRE
169    . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
170    . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
171    . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
172    . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
173    . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
174    . RunTest is a script for running tests on the library
175    . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
176    
177    In addition, if a C++ compiler is found, the following are also built:
178    
179    . pcrecpp.h is the header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
180    . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
181    
182    The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
183    script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
184    contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
185    
186    Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
187    libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
188    command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, it also builds the C++
189    wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
190    pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
191    
192    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code  The command "make test" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
193    Makefile          for building PCRE  tests are given in a separate section of this document, below.
194    Performance       notes on performance  
195    README            this file  You can use "make install" to copy the libraries, the public header files
196    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  pcre.h, pcreposix.h, pcrecpp.h, and pcre_stringpiece.h (the last two only if
197    pcre.3            man page for the functions  the C++ wrapper was built), and the man pages to appropriate live directories
198    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  on your system, in the normal way.
199    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
200    study.c           ) source of  If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
201    pcre.c            )   the functions  This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
202    pcreposix.c       )  remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
203    pcre.h            header for the external API  
204    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
205    internal.h        header for internal use  Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
206    pcretest.c        test program  ---------------------------------------------------------
207    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep  
208    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  Running "make install" also installs the command pcre-config, which can be used
209    perltest          Perl test program  to recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For
210    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl  example:
211    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  
212    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput    pcre-config --version
213    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  
214    prints the version number, and
215  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)  
216  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,    pcre-config --libs
217  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.  
218    outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
219  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with  included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
220  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  having to remember too many details.
221    
222    pcretest testinput /tmp/anything  The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
223    diff /tmp/anything testoutput  about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
224    single command is used. For example:
225  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  
226  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.    pkg-config --cflags pcre
227    
228    pcretest -i testinput2 /tmp/anything  The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
229    diff /tmp/anything testoutput2  pkgconfig.
230    
231  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  
232  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set  Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
233  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  -------------------------------------
234  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  
235    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
236  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.  as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
237  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
238  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  "configure" process.
239  /usr/local/man/man3).  
240    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
241  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
242  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
243  /usr/local/man/man1).  libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
244    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
245  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
246  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this  installed themselves. However, the versions left in the source directory still
247  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  use the uninstalled libraries.
248  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  
249  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
250  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  configuring it. For example:
251  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
252  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
253    
254    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
255    build only shared libraries.
256    
257    
258    Cross-compiling on a Unix-like system
259    -------------------------------------
260    
261    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
262    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, during the building
263    process, the dftables.c source file is compiled *and run* on the local host, in
264    order to generate the default character tables (the chartables.c file). It
265    therefore needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross compiler.
266    You can do this by specifying CC_FOR_BUILD (and if necessary CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD;
267    there are also CXX_FOR_BUILD and CXXFLAGS_FOR_BUILD for the C++ wrapper)
268    when calling the "configure" command. If they are not specified, they default
269    to the values of CC and CFLAGS.
270    
271    
272    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
273    ----------------------------------
274    
275    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifiying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
276    "configure" script, you *must* include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
277    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
278    
279    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
280    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
281    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
282    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
283    running the "configure" script:
284    
285      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
286    
287    
288    Building on non-Unix systems
289    ----------------------------
290    
291    For a non-Unix system, read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE, though if
292    the system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be able to build
293    PCRE in the same way as for Unix systems.
294    
295    PCRE has been compiled on Windows systems and on Macintoshes, but I don't know
296    the details because I don't use those systems. It should be straightforward to
297    build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler, because it uses only
298    Standard C functions.
299    
300    
301    Testing PCRE
302    ------------
303    
304    To test PCRE on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is created by the
305    configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest that tests the
306    options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is build, three
307    test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
308    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are provided.
309    
310    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make runtest",
311    "make check", or "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in
312    NON-UNIX-USE.
313    
314    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
315    own man page) on each of the testinput files (in the testdata directory) in
316    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
317    file. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
318    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
319    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
320    
321      RunTest 2
322    
323    The first file can also be fed directly into the perltest script to check that
324    Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the first
325    few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
326    
327    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
328    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
329    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
330    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flag to check some of the internals of
331    pcre_compile().
332    
333    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
334    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
335    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
336    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
337    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
338    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
339    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
340    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
341    bug in PCRE.
342    
343    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
344    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
345    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
346    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
347    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
348    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
349    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
350    
351      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
352    
353    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
354    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
355    
356    The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
357    PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
358    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
359    provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
360    commented in the script, can be be used.)
361    
362    The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
363    features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
364    
365    The sixth and test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it
366    not run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
367    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
368    
369    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
370    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
371    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
372    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
373    
374    
375  Character tables  Character tables
376  ----------------  ----------------
377    
378  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters whose values
379  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  are less than 256. The final argument of the pcre_compile() function is a
380  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pointer to a block of memory containing the concatenated tables. A call to
381  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set of tables in the current
382  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is passed as NULL, a set of
383  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  default tables that is built into the binary is used.
384  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
385  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is
386  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables
387    (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions
388  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table
389  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for your system will
390  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  control the contents of these default tables. You can change the default tables
391  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  by editing chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should
392  represent character classes.  probably also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get
393    re-generated.
394    
395    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
396    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
397    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
398    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.
399    
400  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
401  follows:  follows:
402    
403      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 99  You should not alter the set of characte Line 411  You should not alter the set of characte
411  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
412    
413    
414  The pcretest program  Manifest
415  --------------------  --------
416    
417    The distribution should contain the following files:
418    
419  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) The actual source files of the PCRE library functions and their
420  experimenting with regular expressions.      headers:
421    
422  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c            auxiliary program for building chartables.c
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
   
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
   
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
   
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
   
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
   
   
   
 The perltest program  
 --------------------  
   
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
   
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
   
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
423    
424  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcreposix.c           )
425  October 1997    pcre_compile.c        )
426      pcre_config.c         )
427      pcre_dfa_exec.c       )
428      pcre_exec.c           )
429      pcre_fullinfo.c       )
430      pcre_get.c            ) sources for the functions in the library,
431      pcre_globals.c        )   and some internal functions that they use
432      pcre_info.c           )
433      pcre_maketables.c     )
434      pcre_ord2utf8.c       )
435      pcre_printint.c       )
436      pcre_study.c          )
437      pcre_tables.c         )
438      pcre_try_flipped.c    )
439      pcre_ucp_findchar.c   )
440      pcre_valid_utf8.c     )
441      pcre_version.c        )
442      pcre_xclass.c         )
443    
444      ucp_findchar.c        )
445      ucp.h                 ) source for the code that is used for
446      ucpinternal.h         )   Unicode property handling
447      ucptable.c            )
448      ucptypetable.c        )
449    
450      pcre.in               "source" for the header for the external API; pcre.h
451                              is built from this by "configure"
452      pcreposix.h           header for the external POSIX wrapper API
453      pcre_internal.h       header for internal use
454      config.in             template for config.h, which is built by configure
455    
456      pcrecpp.h             the header file for the C++ wrapper
457      pcrecpparg.h.in       "source" for another C++ header file
458      pcrecpp.cc            )
459      pcre_scanner.cc       ) source for the C++ wrapper library
460    
461      pcre_stringpiece.h.in "source" for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
462                              C++ stringpiece functions
463      pcre_stringpiece.cc   source for the C++ stringpiece functions
464    
465    (B) Auxiliary files:
466    
467      AUTHORS               information about the author of PCRE
468      ChangeLog             log of changes to the code
469      INSTALL               generic installation instructions
470      LICENCE               conditions for the use of PCRE
471      COPYING               the same, using GNU's standard name
472      Makefile.in           template for Unix Makefile, which is built by configure
473      NEWS                  important changes in this release
474      NON-UNIX-USE          notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
475      README                this file
476      RunTest.in            template for a Unix shell script for running tests
477      RunGrepTest.in        template for a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
478      config.guess          ) files used by libtool,
479      config.sub            )   used only when building a shared library
480      configure             a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
481      configure.in          the autoconf input used to build configure
482      doc/Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding
483      doc/*.3               man page sources for the PCRE functions
484      doc/*.1               man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
485      doc/html/*            HTML documentation
486      doc/pcre.txt          plain text version of the man pages
487      doc/pcretest.txt      plain text documentation of test program
488      doc/perltest.txt      plain text documentation of Perl test program
489      install-sh            a shell script for installing files
490      libpcre.pc.in         "source" for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
491      ltmain.sh             file used to build a libtool script
492      mkinstalldirs         script for making install directories
493      pcretest.c            comprehensive test program
494      pcredemo.c            simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
495      perltest              Perl test program
496      pcregrep.c            source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
497      pcre-config.in        source of script which retains PCRE information
498      pcrecpp_unittest.c           )
499      pcre_scanner_unittest.c      ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
500      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.c  )
501      testdata/testinput*   test data for main library tests
502      testdata/testoutput*  expected test results
503      testdata/grep*        input and output for pcregrep tests
504    
505    (C) Auxiliary files for Win32 DLL
506    
507      libpcre.def
508      libpcreposix.def
509      pcre.def
510    
511    (D) Auxiliary file for VPASCAL
512    
513      makevp.bat
514    
515    Philip Hazel
516    Email local part: ph10
517    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
518    January 2006

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