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1  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expressions)  README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
2  ----------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------
3    
4  The distribution should contain the following files:  The latest release of PCRE is always available from
5    
6      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
7    
8    Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
9    
10    
11    The PCRE APIs
12    -------------
13    
14    PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. The distribution now includes a
15    set of C++ wrapper functions, courtesy of Google Inc. (see the pcrecpp man page
16    for details).
17    
18    Also included are a set of C wrapper functions that are based on the POSIX
19    API. These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
20    provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions themselves
21    still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file for the POSIX-style
22    functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is regex.h, but I
23    didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of that name by
24    distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that uses the
25    POSIX API, it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.
26    
27    If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
28    library installed on your system, you must take care when linking programs to
29    ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
30    up the "real" POSIX functions of the same name.
31    
32    
33    Documentation for PCRE
34    ----------------------
35    
36    If you install PCRE in the normal way, you will end up with an installed set of
37    man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just called "pcre"
38    lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE documentation is
39    supplied in two other forms; however, as there is no standard place to install
40    them, they are left in the doc directory of the unpacked source distribution.
41    These forms are:
42    
43      1. Files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and doc/pcretest.txt. The
44         first of these is a concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3
45         man pages except those that summarize individual functions. The other two
46         are the text forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and
47         pcretest commands. Text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text
48         editors or similar tools.
49    
50      2. A subdirectory called doc/html contains all the documentation in HTML
51         form, hyperlinked in various ways, and rooted in a file called
52         doc/index.html.
53    
54    
55    Contributions by users of PCRE
56    ------------------------------
57    
58    You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
59    
60      ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
61    
62    where there is also a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are.
63    Several of them provide support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
64    Windows systems (I myself do not use Windows). Some are complete in themselves;
65    others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
66    
67    
68    Building on non-Unix systems
69    ----------------------------
70    
71    For a non-Unix system, read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE, though if
72    the system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be able to build
73    PCRE in the same way as for Unix systems.
74    
75    PCRE has been compiled on Windows systems and on Macintoshes, but I don't know
76    the details because I don't use those systems. It should be straightforward to
77    build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and library, because it
78    uses only Standard C functions.
79    
80    
81    Building PCRE on a Unix-like system
82    -----------------------------------
83    
84    If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
85    in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
86    
87    To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
88    PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
89    where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
90    "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
91    INSTALL.
92    
93    Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
94    this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient, but the
95    usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
96    
97    CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
98    
99    specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2 -Wall' instead
100    of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE under /opt/local
101    instead of the default /usr/local.
102    
103    If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
104    directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
105    into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
106    
107    cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
108    /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
109    
110    PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
111    possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
112    does not have any features to support this.
113    
114    There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
115    library. You can read more about them in the pcrebuild man page.
116    
117    . If you want to suppress the building of the C++ wrapper library, you can add
118      --disable-cpp to the "configure" command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run,
119      will try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it
120      will try to build the C++ wrapper.
121    
122    . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 character strings in PCRE,
123      you must add --enable-utf8 to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
124      for handling UTF-8 is not included in the library. (Even when included, it
125      still has to be enabled by an option at run time.)
126    
127    . If, in addition to support for UTF-8 character strings, you want to include
128      support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode character
129      properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the "configure"
130      command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the form of a
131      property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu are
132      supported.
133    
134    . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
135      of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the end of a line. Whatever
136      you specify at build time is the default; the caller of PCRE can change the
137      selection at run time. The default newline indicator is a single LF character
138      (the Unix standard). You can specify the default newline indicator by adding
139      --newline-is-cr or --newline-is-lf or --newline-is-crlf or --newline-is-any
140      to the "configure" command, respectively.
141    
142      If you specify --newline-is-cr or --newline-is-crlf, some of the standard
143      tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with LF. Even if
144      the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely to be some
145      failures. With --newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be
146      some failures.
147    
148    . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
149      storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
150      them. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
151    
152      --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
153    
154      on the "configure" command.
155    
156    . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
157      If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
158      million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
159    
160      --with-match-limit=500000
161    
162      on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
163      pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is discussion on the pcreapi
164      man page.
165    
166    . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
167      during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
168      essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
169    
170      --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
171    
172      Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
173      cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
174      sizes in the pcrestack man page.
175    
176    . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
177      this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. You can
178      increase it even more by setting --with-link-size=4, but this is unlikely
179      ever to be necessary. If you build PCRE with an increased link size, test 2
180      (and 5 if you are using UTF-8) will fail. Part of the output of these tests
181      is a representation of the compiled pattern, and this changes with the link
182      size.
183    
184    . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
185      pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses blocks of data
186      from the heap via special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and pcre_stack_free()
187      to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To build PCRE like
188      this, use
189    
190      --disable-stack-for-recursion
191    
192      on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
193      necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
194      pcre_exec() function; it does not apply to pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not
195      use deeply nested recursion.
196    
197    The "configure" script builds eight files for the basic C library:
198    
199    ChangeLog         log of changes to the code  . Makefile is the makefile that builds the library
200    Makefile          for building PCRE  . config.h contains build-time configuration options for the library
201    Performance       notes on performance  . pcre-config is a script that shows the settings of "configure" options
202    README            this file  . libpcre.pc is data for the pkg-config command
203    Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding  . libtool is a script that builds shared and/or static libraries
204    pcre.3            man page for the functions  . RunTest is a script for running tests on the library
205    pcreposix.3       man page for the POSIX wrapper API  . RunGrepTest is a script for running tests on the pcregrep command
206    maketables.c      auxiliary program for building chartables.c  
207    study.c           ) source of  In addition, if a C++ compiler is found, the following are also built:
208    pcre.c            )   the functions  
209    pcreposix.c       )  . pcrecpp.h is the header file for programs that call PCRE via the C++ wrapper
210    pcre.h            header for the external API  . pcre_stringpiece.h is the header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
211    pcreposix.h       header for the external POSIX wrapper API  
212    internal.h        header for internal use  The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
213    pcretest.c        test program  script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
214    pgrep.1           man page for pgrep  contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
215    pgrep.c           source of a grep utility that uses PCRE  
216    perltest          Perl test program  Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". It builds two libraries, called
217    testinput         test data, compatible with Perl  libpcre and libpcreposix, a test program called pcretest, and the pcregrep
218    testinput2        test data for error messages and non-Perl things  command. If a C++ compiler was found on your system, it also builds the C++
219    testoutput        test results corresponding to testinput  wrapper library, which is called libpcrecpp, and some test programs called
220    testoutput2       test results corresponding to testinput2  pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
221    
222  To build PCRE, edit Makefile for your system (it is a fairly simple make file)  The command "make test" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
223  and then run it. It builds a two libraries called libpcre.a and libpcreposix.a,  tests are given in a separate section of this document, below.
224  a test program called pcretest, and the pgrep command.  
225    You can use "make install" to copy the libraries, the public header files
226  To test PCRE, run pcretest on the file testinput, and compare the output with  pcre.h, pcreposix.h, pcrecpp.h, and pcre_stringpiece.h (the last two only if
227  the contents of testoutput. There should be no differences. For example:  the C++ wrapper was built), and the man pages to appropriate live directories
228    on your system, in the normal way.
229    pcretest testinput some.file  
230    diff some.file testoutput  If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
231    This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
232  Do the same with testinput2, comparing the output with testoutput2, but this  remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
233  time using the -i flag for pcretest, i.e.  
234    
235    pcretest -i testinput2 some.file  Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
236    diff some.file testoutput2  ---------------------------------------------------------
237    
238  The make target "runtest" runs both these tests, using the file "testtry" to  Running "make install" also installs the command pcre-config, which can be used
239  store the intermediate output, deleting it at the end if all goes well.  to recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For
240    example:
241  There are two sets of tests because the first set can also be fed directly into  
242  the perltest program to check that Perl gives the same results. The second set    pcre-config --version
243  of tests check pcre_info(), pcre_study(), error detection and run-time flags  
244  that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX wrapper API.  prints the version number, and
245    
246  To install PCRE, copy libpcre.a to any suitable library directory (e.g.    pcre-config --libs
247  /usr/local/lib), pcre.h to any suitable include directory (e.g.  
248  /usr/local/include), and pcre.3 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
249  /usr/local/man/man3).  included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
250    having to remember too many details.
251  To install the pgrep command, copy it to any suitable binary directory, (e.g.  
252  /usr/local/bin) and pgrep.1 to any suitable man directory (e.g.  The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
253  /usr/local/man/man1).  about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
254    single command is used. For example:
255  PCRE has its own native API, but a set of "wrapper" functions that are based on  
256  the POSIX API are also supplied in the library libpcreposix.a. Note that this    pkg-config --cflags pcre
257  just provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE: the regular expressions  
258  themselves still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The header file  The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
259  for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The official POSIX name is  pkgconfig.
260  regex.h, but I didn't want to risk possible problems with existing files of  
261  that name by distributing it that way. To use it with an existing program that  
262  uses the POSIX API it will have to be renamed or pointed at by a link.  Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
263    -------------------------------------
264    
265    The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
266    as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
267    support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
268    "configure" process.
269    
270    The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
271    libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
272    built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
273    libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
274    you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
275    automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
276    installed themselves. However, the versions left in the source directory still
277    use the uninstalled libraries.
278    
279    To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
280    configuring it. For example:
281    
282    ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
283    
284    Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
285    build only shared libraries.
286    
287    
288    Cross-compiling on a Unix-like system
289    -------------------------------------
290    
291    You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
292    order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, during the building
293    process, the dftables.c source file is compiled *and run* on the local host, in
294    order to generate the default character tables (the chartables.c file). It
295    therefore needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross compiler.
296    You can do this by specifying CC_FOR_BUILD (and if necessary CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD;
297    there are also CXX_FOR_BUILD and CXXFLAGS_FOR_BUILD for the C++ wrapper)
298    when calling the "configure" command. If they are not specified, they default
299    to the values of CC and CFLAGS.
300    
301    
302    Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
303    ----------------------------------
304    
305    Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
306    "configure" script, you *must* include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
307    environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
308    
309    Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
310    needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
311    option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
312    use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
313    running the "configure" script:
314    
315      CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
316    
317    
318    Testing PCRE
319    ------------
320    
321    To test PCRE on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is created by the
322    configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest that tests the
323    options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is build, three
324    test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
325    pcre_stringpiece_unittest are provided.
326    
327    Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make runtest",
328    "make check", or "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in
329    NON-UNIX-USE.
330    
331    The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
332    own man page) on each of the testinput files (in the testdata directory) in
333    turn, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding testoutput
334    files. A file called testtry is used to hold the main output from pcretest
335    (testsavedregex is also used as a working file). To run pcretest on just one of
336    the test files, give its number as an argument to RunTest, for example:
337    
338      RunTest 2
339    
340    The first test file can also be fed directly into the perltest script to check
341    that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
342    first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
343    
344    The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_info(), pcre_study(),
345    pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
346    detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
347    wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flag to check some of the internals of
348    pcre_compile().
349    
350    If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
351    character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
352    cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
353    isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
354    [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
355    this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
356    listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
357    test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
358    bug in PCRE.
359    
360    The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
361    set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
362    default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
363    running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
364    the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
365    in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
366    is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
367    
368      ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
369    
370    in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
371    despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
372    
373    The fourth test checks the UTF-8 support. It is not run automatically unless
374    PCRE is built with UTF-8 support. To do this you must set --enable-utf8 when
375    running "configure". This file can be also fed directly to the perltest script,
376    provided you are running Perl 5.8 or higher. (For Perl 5.6, a small patch,
377    commented in the script, can be be used.)
378    
379    The fifth test checks error handling with UTF-8 encoding, and internal UTF-8
380    features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl.
381    
382    The sixth and test checks the support for Unicode character properties. It it
383    not run automatically unless PCRE is built with Unicode property support. To to
384    this you must set --enable-unicode-properties when running "configure".
385    
386    The seventh, eighth, and ninth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
387    matching function, in non-UTF-8 mode, UTF-8 mode, and UTF-8 mode with Unicode
388    property support, respectively. The eighth and ninth tests are not run
389    automatically unless PCRE is build with the relevant support.
390    
391    
392  Character tables  Character tables
393  ----------------  ----------------
394    
395  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters. These are  PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters whose values
396  compiled from a source file called chartables.c. This is not supplied in  are less than 256. The final argument of the pcre_compile() function is a
397  the distribution, but is built by the program maketables (compiled from  pointer to a block of memory containing the concatenated tables. A call to
398  maketables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions such as  pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set of tables in the current
399  isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table sources.  locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is passed as NULL, a set of
400  This means that the default C locale set in your system may affect the contents  default tables that is built into the binary is used.
401  of the tables. You can change the tables by editing chartables.c and then  
402  re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should probably also edit Makefile to  The source file called chartables.c contains the default set of tables. This is
403  ensure that the file doesn't ever get re-generated.  not supplied in the distribution, but is built by the program dftables
404    (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character handling functions
405  The first two tables pcre_lcc[] and pcre_fcc[] provide lower casing and a  such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to build the table
406  case flipping functions, respectively. The pcre_cbits[] table consists of four  sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for your system will
407  32-byte bit maps which identify digits, letters, "word" characters, and white  control the contents of these default tables. You can change the default tables
408  space, respectively. These are used when building 32-byte bit maps that  by editing chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If you do this, you should
409  represent character classes.  probably also edit Makefile to ensure that the file doesn't ever get
410    re-generated.
411    
412    The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
413    respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
414    digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
415    building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes.
416    
417  The pcre_ctypes[] table has bits indicating various character types, as  The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
418  follows:  follows:
419    
420      1   white space character      1   white space character
# Line 102  You should not alter the set of characte Line 428  You should not alter the set of characte
428  will cause PCRE to malfunction.  will cause PCRE to malfunction.
429    
430    
431  The pcretest program  Manifest
432  --------------------  --------
433    
434    The distribution should contain the following files:
435    
436  This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  (A) The actual source files of the PCRE library functions and their
437  experimenting with regular expressions.      headers:
438    
439  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to    dftables.c            auxiliary program for building chartables.c
 the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file  
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 set. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric  
 delimiters, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 and may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,  
 PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. These options have the  
 same effect as they do in Perl.  
   
 There are also some upper case options that do not match Perl options: /A, /E,  
 and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
 The /D option is a PCRE debugging feature. It causes the internal form of  
 compiled regular expressions to be output after compilation. The /S option  
 causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been compiled, and  
 the results used when the expression is matched. If /I is present as well as  
 /S, then pcre_study() is called with the PCRE_CASELESS option.  
   
 Finally, the /P option causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other options except /i and  
 /m are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m  
 is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and  
 PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 A regular expression can extend over several lines of input; the newlines are  
 included in it. See the testinput file for many examples.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \E     pass the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option to pcre_exec()  
   \I     pass the PCRE_CASELESS option to pcre_exec()  
   \M     pass the PCRE_MULTILINE option to pcre_exec()  
   \S     pass the PCRE_DOTALL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of identified substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   Testing Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions  
   PCRE version 0.90 08-Sep-1997  
   
       re> /^abc(\d+)/  
     data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
     data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i (for "information") is given to pcretest, it calls pcre_info()  
 after compiling an expression, and outputs the information it gets back. If the  
 pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
   
 If the option -s is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 2000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 2000 times and the timing will be distorted.  
   
   
   
 The perltest program  
 --------------------  
   
 The perltest program tests Perl's regular expressions; it has the same  
 specification as pcretest, and so can be given identical input, except that  
 input patterns can be followed only by Perl's lower case options.  
   
 The data lines are processed as Perl strings, so if they contain $ or @  
 characters, these have to be escaped. For this reason, all such characters in  
 the testinput file are escaped so that it can be used for perltest as well as  
 for pcretest, and the special upper case options such as /A that pcretest  
 recognizes are not used in this file. The output should be identical, apart  
 from the initial identifying banner.  
   
 The testinput2 file is not suitable for feeding to Perltest, since it does  
 make use of the special upper case options and escapes that pcretest uses to  
 test additional features of PCRE.  
440    
441  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>    pcreposix.c           )
442  October 1997    pcre_compile.c        )
443      pcre_config.c         )
444      pcre_dfa_exec.c       )
445      pcre_exec.c           )
446      pcre_fullinfo.c       )
447      pcre_get.c            ) sources for the functions in the library,
448      pcre_globals.c        )   and some internal functions that they use
449      pcre_info.c           )
450      pcre_maketables.c     )
451      pcre_newline.c        )
452      pcre_ord2utf8.c       )
453      pcre_refcount.c       )
454      pcre_study.c          )
455      pcre_tables.c         )
456      pcre_try_flipped.c    )
457      pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c)
458      pcre_valid_utf8.c     )
459      pcre_version.c        )
460      pcre_xclass.c         )
461    
462      pcre_printint.src     ) debugging function that is #included in pcretest, and
463                            )   can also be #included in pcre_compile()
464    
465      pcre.h                the public PCRE header file
466      pcreposix.h           header for the external POSIX wrapper API
467      pcre_internal.h       header for internal use
468      ucp.h                 ) headers concerned with
469      ucpinternal.h         )   Unicode property handling
470      ucptable.h            ) (this one is the data table)
471      config.in             template for config.h, which is built by configure
472    
473      pcrecpp.h             the header file for the C++ wrapper
474      pcrecpparg.h.in       "source" for another C++ header file
475      pcrecpp.cc            )
476      pcre_scanner.cc       ) source for the C++ wrapper library
477    
478      pcre_stringpiece.h.in "source" for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
479                              C++ stringpiece functions
480      pcre_stringpiece.cc   source for the C++ stringpiece functions
481    
482    (B) Auxiliary files:
483    
484      AUTHORS               information about the author of PCRE
485      ChangeLog             log of changes to the code
486      INSTALL               generic installation instructions
487      LICENCE               conditions for the use of PCRE
488      COPYING               the same, using GNU's standard name
489      Makefile.in           template for Unix Makefile, which is built by configure
490      NEWS                  important changes in this release
491      NON-UNIX-USE          notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
492      README                this file
493      RunTest.in            template for a Unix shell script for running tests
494      RunGrepTest.in        template for a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
495      config.guess          ) files used by libtool,
496      config.sub            )   used only when building a shared library
497      config.h.in           "source" for the config.h header file
498      configure             a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
499      configure.ac          the autoconf input used to build configure
500      doc/Tech.Notes        notes on the encoding
501      doc/*.3               man page sources for the PCRE functions
502      doc/*.1               man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
503      doc/html/*            HTML documentation
504      doc/pcre.txt          plain text version of the man pages
505      doc/pcretest.txt      plain text documentation of test program
506      doc/perltest.txt      plain text documentation of Perl test program
507      install-sh            a shell script for installing files
508      libpcre.pc.in         "source" for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
509      ltmain.sh             file used to build a libtool script
510      mkinstalldirs         script for making install directories
511      pcretest.c            comprehensive test program
512      pcredemo.c            simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
513      perltest.pl           Perl test program
514      pcregrep.c            source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
515      pcre-config.in        source of script which retains PCRE information
516      pcrecpp_unittest.c           )
517      pcre_scanner_unittest.c      ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
518      pcre_stringpiece_unittest.c  )
519      testdata/testinput*   test data for main library tests
520      testdata/testoutput*  expected test results
521      testdata/grep*        input and output for pcregrep tests
522    
523    (C) Auxiliary files for Win32 DLL
524    
525      libpcre.def
526      libpcreposix.def
527    
528    (D) Auxiliary file for VPASCAL
529    
530      makevp.bat
531    
532    Philip Hazel
533    Email local part: ph10
534    Email domain: cam.ac.uk
535    March 2007

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