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Revision 212 - (hide annotations) (download)
Thu Aug 9 11:16:34 2007 UTC (7 years, 8 months ago) by ph10
File size: 17529 byte(s)
Updating docs for release; fix heap-related bugs in pcre_exec shown up by 
release testing.

1 nigel 41 Technical Notes about PCRE
2     --------------------------
4 nigel 91 These are very rough technical notes that record potentially useful information
5     about PCRE internals.
7 nigel 75 Historical note 1
8     -----------------
10 nigel 41 Many years ago I implemented some regular expression functions to an algorithm
11     suggested by Martin Richards. These were not Unix-like in form, and were quite
12     restricted in what they could do by comparison with Perl. The interesting part
13     about the algorithm was that the amount of space required to hold the compiled
14     form of an expression was known in advance. The code to apply an expression did
15 nigel 63 not operate by backtracking, as the original Henry Spencer code and current
16     Perl code does, but instead checked all possibilities simultaneously by keeping
17     a list of current states and checking all of them as it advanced through the
18 nigel 75 subject string. In the terminology of Jeffrey Friedl's book, it was a "DFA
19 nigel 93 algorithm", though it was not a traditional Finite State Machine (FSM). When
20     the pattern was all used up, all remaining states were possible matches, and
21     the one matching the longest subset of the subject string was chosen. This did
22     not necessarily maximize the individual wild portions of the pattern, as is
23     expected in Unix and Perl-style regular expressions.
24 nigel 41
25 nigel 75 Historical note 2
26     -----------------
28 nigel 91 By contrast, the code originally written by Henry Spencer (which was
29     subsequently heavily modified for Perl) compiles the expression twice: once in
30     a dummy mode in order to find out how much store will be needed, and then for
31     real. (The Perl version probably doesn't do this any more; I'm talking about
32     the original library.) The execution function operates by backtracking and
33     maximizing (or, optionally, minimizing in Perl) the amount of the subject that
34     matches individual wild portions of the pattern. This is an "NFA algorithm" in
35     Friedl's terminology.
36 nigel 41
37 nigel 75 OK, here's the real stuff
38     -------------------------
40 nigel 77 For the set of functions that form the "basic" PCRE library (which are
41     unrelated to those mentioned above), I tried at first to invent an algorithm
42     that used an amount of store bounded by a multiple of the number of characters
43     in the pattern, to save on compiling time. However, because of the greater
44     complexity in Perl regular expressions, I couldn't do this. In any case, a
45 nigel 93 first pass through the pattern is helpful for other reasons.
46 nigel 41
47 nigel 93 Computing the memory requirement: how it was
48     --------------------------------------------
50     Up to and including release 6.7, PCRE worked by running a very degenerate first
51     pass to calculate a maximum store size, and then a second pass to do the real
52     compile - which might use a bit less than the predicted amount of memory. The
53     idea was that this would turn out faster than the Henry Spencer code because
54     the first pass is degenerate and the second pass can just store stuff straight
55     into the vector, which it knows is big enough.
57     Computing the memory requirement: how it is
58     -------------------------------------------
60     By the time I was working on a potential 6.8 release, the degenerate first pass
61     had become very complicated and hard to maintain. Indeed one of the early
62     things I did for 6.8 was to fix Yet Another Bug in the memory computation. Then
63     I had a flash of inspiration as to how I could run the real compile function in
64     a "fake" mode that enables it to compute how much memory it would need, while
65     actually only ever using a few hundred bytes of working memory, and without too
66     many tests of the mode that might slow it down. So I re-factored the compiling
67     functions to work this way. This got rid of about 600 lines of source. It
68     should make future maintenance and development easier. As this was such a major
69     change, I never released 6.8, instead upping the number to 7.0 (other quite
70     major changes are also present in the 7.0 release).
72     A side effect of this work is that the previous limit of 200 on the nesting
73     depth of parentheses was removed. However, there is a downside: pcre_compile()
74     runs more slowly than before (30% or more, depending on the pattern) because it
75     is doing a full analysis of the pattern. My hope is that this is not a big
76     issue.
78 nigel 77 Traditional matching function
79     -----------------------------
81     The "traditional", and original, matching function is called pcre_exec(), and
82     it implements an NFA algorithm, similar to the original Henry Spencer algorithm
83     and the way that Perl works. Not surprising, since it is intended to be as
84     compatible with Perl as possible. This is the function most users of PCRE will
85     use most of the time.
87     Supplementary matching function
88     -------------------------------
90     From PCRE 6.0, there is also a supplementary matching function called
91     pcre_dfa_exec(). This implements a DFA matching algorithm that searches
92     simultaneously for all possible matches that start at one point in the subject
93     string. (Going back to my roots: see Historical Note 1 above.) This function
94     intreprets the same compiled pattern data as pcre_exec(); however, not all the
95 nigel 91 facilities are available, and those that are do not always work in quite the
96 nigel 77 same way. See the user documentation for details.
98 nigel 93 The algorithm that is used for pcre_dfa_exec() is not a traditional FSM,
99     because it may have a number of states active at one time. More work would be
100     needed at compile time to produce a traditional FSM where only one state is
101     ever active at once. I believe some other regex matchers work this way.
104 nigel 77 Format of compiled patterns
105     ---------------------------
107 nigel 41 The compiled form of a pattern is a vector of bytes, containing items of
108     variable length. The first byte in an item is an opcode, and the length of the
109 nigel 75 item is either implicit in the opcode or contained in the data bytes that
110     follow it.
111 nigel 41
112 ph10 212 In many cases below LINK_SIZE data values are specified for offsets within the
113     compiled pattern. The default value for LINK_SIZE is 2, but PCRE can be
114 nigel 93 compiled to use 3-byte or 4-byte values for these offsets (impairing the
115 nigel 75 performance). This is necessary only when patterns whose compiled length is
116 nigel 93 greater than 64K are going to be processed. In this description, we assume the
117 ph10 212 "normal" compilation options. Data values that are counts (e.g. for
118     quantifiers) are always just two bytes long.
119 nigel 75
120 ph10 212 A list of the opcodes follows:
121 nigel 75
122 nigel 41 Opcodes with no following data
123     ------------------------------
125     These items are all just one byte long
127     OP_END end of pattern
128     OP_ANY match any character
129 nigel 75 OP_ANYBYTE match any single byte, even in UTF-8 mode
130 nigel 41 OP_SOD match start of data: \A
131 nigel 71 OP_SOM, start of match (subject + offset): \G
132 ph10 181 OP_SET_SOM, set start of match (\K)
133 nigel 41 OP_CIRC ^ (start of data, or after \n in multiline)
136     OP_NOT_DIGIT \D
137     OP_DIGIT \d
138 ph10 181 OP_NOT_HSPACE \H
139     OP_HSPACE \h
140 nigel 41 OP_NOT_WHITESPACE \S
141     OP_WHITESPACE \s
142 ph10 181 OP_NOT_VSPACE \V
143     OP_VSPACE \v
144 nigel 41 OP_NOT_WORDCHAR \W
145     OP_WORDCHAR \w
146     OP_EODN match end of data or \n at end: \Z
147     OP_EOD match end of data: \z
148     OP_DOLL $ (end of data, or before \n in multiline)
149 nigel 75 OP_EXTUNI match an extended Unicode character
150 nigel 93 OP_ANYNL match any Unicode newline sequence
151 nigel 75
152 ph10 212 OP_ACCEPT )
153     OP_COMMIT )
154     OP_FAIL ) These are Perl 5.10's "backtracking
155     OP_PRUNE ) control verbs".
156     OP_SKIP )
157     OP_THEN )
159 nigel 41
160     Repeating single characters
161     ---------------------------
163 nigel 75 The common repeats (*, +, ?) when applied to a single character use the
164     following opcodes:
165 nigel 41
166     OP_STAR
167     OP_MINSTAR
168 nigel 93 OP_POSSTAR
169 nigel 41 OP_PLUS
170     OP_MINPLUS
171 nigel 93 OP_POSPLUS
172 nigel 41 OP_QUERY
174 nigel 93 OP_POSQUERY
175 nigel 41
176 nigel 75 In ASCII mode, these are two-byte items; in UTF-8 mode, the length is variable.
177 nigel 93 Those with "MIN" in their name are the minimizing versions. Those with "POS" in
178     their names are possessive versions. Each is followed by the character that is
179     to be repeated. Other repeats make use of
180 nigel 41
181     OP_UPTO
182     OP_MINUPTO
183 nigel 93 OP_POSUPTO
184 nigel 41 OP_EXACT
186     which are followed by a two-byte count (most significant first) and the
187     repeated character. OP_UPTO matches from 0 to the given number. A repeat with a
188     non-zero minimum and a fixed maximum is coded as an OP_EXACT followed by an
189 nigel 93 OP_UPTO (or OP_MINUPTO or OPT_POSUPTO).
190 nigel 41
192     Repeating character types
193     -------------------------
195     Repeats of things like \d are done exactly as for single characters, except
196     that instead of a character, the opcode for the type is stored in the data
197     byte. The opcodes are:
201 nigel 93 OP_TYPEPOSSTAR
202 nigel 41 OP_TYPEPLUS
204 nigel 93 OP_TYPEPOSPLUS
205 nigel 41 OP_TYPEQUERY
207 nigel 93 OP_TYPEPOSQUERY
208 nigel 41 OP_TYPEUPTO
210 nigel 93 OP_TYPEPOSUPTO
211 nigel 41 OP_TYPEEXACT
214 nigel 75 Match by Unicode property
215     -------------------------
217     OP_PROP and OP_NOTPROP are used for positive and negative matches of a
218     character by testing its Unicode property (the \p and \P escape sequences).
219 nigel 91 Each is followed by two bytes that encode the desired property as a type and a
220     value.
221 nigel 75
222 nigel 91 Repeats of these items use the OP_TYPESTAR etc. set of opcodes, followed by
223     three bytes: OP_PROP or OP_NOTPROP and then the desired property type and
224     value.
225 nigel 75
227     Matching literal characters
228 nigel 41 ---------------------------
230 nigel 75 The OP_CHAR opcode is followed by a single character that is to be matched
231     casefully. For caseless matching, OP_CHARNC is used. In UTF-8 mode, the
232     character may be more than one byte long. (Earlier versions of PCRE used
233     multi-character strings, but this was changed to allow some new features to be
234     added.)
235 nigel 41
237     Character classes
238     -----------------
240 nigel 75 If there is only one character, OP_CHAR or OP_CHARNC is used for a positive
241     class, and OP_NOT for a negative one (that is, for something like [^a]).
242     However, in UTF-8 mode, the use of OP_NOT applies only to characters with
243     values < 128, because OP_NOT is confined to single bytes.
244 nigel 41
245 nigel 63 Another set of repeating opcodes (OP_NOTSTAR etc.) are used for a repeated,
246     negated, single-character class. The normal ones (OP_STAR etc.) are used for a
247     repeated positive single-character class.
249 nigel 71 When there's more than one character in a class and all the characters are less
250 nigel 75 than 256, OP_CLASS is used for a positive class, and OP_NCLASS for a negative
251 nigel 71 one. In either case, the opcode is followed by a 32-byte bit map containing a 1
252     bit for every character that is acceptable. The bits are counted from the least
253     significant end of each byte.
254 nigel 41
255 nigel 75 The reason for having both OP_CLASS and OP_NCLASS is so that, in UTF-8 mode,
256     subject characters with values greater than 256 can be handled correctly. For
257 nigel 71 OP_CLASS they don't match, whereas for OP_NCLASS they do.
259 nigel 63 For classes containing characters with values > 255, OP_XCLASS is used. It
260     optionally uses a bit map (if any characters lie within it), followed by a list
261 nigel 75 of pairs and single characters. There is a flag character than indicates
262 nigel 63 whether it's a positive or a negative class.
263 nigel 41
264 nigel 63
265 nigel 41 Back references
266     ---------------
268 nigel 53 OP_REF is followed by two bytes containing the reference number.
269 nigel 41
271     Repeating character classes and back references
272     -----------------------------------------------
274 nigel 93 Single-character classes are handled specially (see above). This section
275     applies to OP_CLASS and OP_REF. In both cases, the repeat information follows
276     the base item. The matching code looks at the following opcode to see if it is
277     one of
278 nigel 41
279     OP_CRSTAR
281     OP_CRPLUS
283     OP_CRQUERY
285     OP_CRRANGE
288     All but the last two are just single-byte items. The others are followed by
289 nigel 93 four bytes of data, comprising the minimum and maximum repeat counts. There are
290     no special possessive opcodes for these repeats; a possessive repeat is
291     compiled into an atomic group.
292 nigel 41
294     Brackets and alternation
295     ------------------------
297 nigel 43 A pair of non-capturing (round) brackets is wrapped round each expression at
298 nigel 41 compile time, so alternation always happens in the context of brackets.
299 nigel 53
300 nigel 93 [Note for North Americans: "bracket" to some English speakers, including
301     myself, can be round, square, curly, or pointy. Hence this usage.]
302 nigel 41
303 nigel 93 Non-capturing brackets use the opcode OP_BRA. Originally PCRE was limited to 99
304     capturing brackets and it used a different opcode for each one. From release
305     3.5, the limit was removed by putting the bracket number into the data for
306     higher-numbered brackets. From release 7.0 all capturing brackets are handled
307     this way, using the single opcode OP_CBRA.
308 nigel 53
309 nigel 77 A bracket opcode is followed by LINK_SIZE bytes which give the offset to the
310     next alternative OP_ALT or, if there aren't any branches, to the matching
311     OP_KET opcode. Each OP_ALT is followed by LINK_SIZE bytes giving the offset to
312 nigel 93 the next one, or to the OP_KET opcode. For capturing brackets, the bracket
313     number immediately follows the offset, always as a 2-byte item.
314 nigel 41
315     OP_KET is used for subpatterns that do not repeat indefinitely, while
316     OP_KETRMIN and OP_KETRMAX are used for indefinite repetitions, minimally or
317 nigel 77 maximally respectively. All three are followed by LINK_SIZE bytes giving (as a
318 nigel 93 positive number) the offset back to the matching bracket opcode.
319 nigel 41
320     If a subpattern is quantified such that it is permitted to match zero times, it
321     is preceded by one of OP_BRAZERO or OP_BRAMINZERO. These are single-byte
322     opcodes which tell the matcher that skipping this subpattern entirely is a
323     valid branch.
325     A subpattern with an indefinite maximum repetition is replicated in the
326 nigel 75 compiled data its minimum number of times (or once with OP_BRAZERO if the
327     minimum is zero), with the final copy terminating with OP_KETRMIN or OP_KETRMAX
328     as appropriate.
329 nigel 41
330     A subpattern with a bounded maximum repetition is replicated in a nested
331 nigel 75 fashion up to the maximum number of times, with OP_BRAZERO or OP_BRAMINZERO
332     before each replication after the minimum, so that, for example, (abc){2,5} is
333 nigel 93 compiled as (abc)(abc)((abc)((abc)(abc)?)?)?, except that each bracketed group
334     has the same number.
335 nigel 41
336 nigel 93 When a repeated subpattern has an unbounded upper limit, it is checked to see
337     whether it could match an empty string. If this is the case, the opcode in the
338     final replication is changed to OP_SBRA or OP_SCBRA. This tells the matcher
339     that it needs to check for matching an empty string when it hits OP_KETRMIN or
340     OP_KETRMAX, and if so, to break the loop.
341 nigel 41
342 nigel 93
343 nigel 41 Assertions
344     ----------
346     Forward assertions are just like other subpatterns, but starting with one of
347     the opcodes OP_ASSERT or OP_ASSERT_NOT. Backward assertions use the opcodes
348     OP_ASSERTBACK and OP_ASSERTBACK_NOT, and the first opcode inside the assertion
349     is OP_REVERSE, followed by a two byte count of the number of characters to move
350 nigel 49 back the pointer in the subject string. When operating in UTF-8 mode, the count
351     is a character count rather than a byte count. A separate count is present in
352     each alternative of a lookbehind assertion, allowing them to have different
353     fixed lengths.
354 nigel 41
356 nigel 93 Once-only (atomic) subpatterns
357     ------------------------------
358 nigel 41
359     These are also just like other subpatterns, but they start with the opcode
360 nigel 93 OP_ONCE. The check for matching an empty string in an unbounded repeat is
361     handled entirely at runtime, so there is just this one opcode.
362 nigel 41
364     Conditional subpatterns
365     -----------------------
367 nigel 93 These are like other subpatterns, but they start with the opcode OP_COND, or
368     OP_SCOND for one that might match an empty string in an unbounded repeat. If
369 nigel 41 the condition is a back reference, this is stored at the start of the
370 nigel 53 subpattern using the opcode OP_CREF followed by two bytes containing the
371 nigel 93 reference number. If the condition is "in recursion" (coded as "(?(R)"), or "in
372     recursion of group x" (coded as "(?(Rx)"), the group number is stored at the
373     start of the subpattern using the opcode OP_RREF, and a value of zero for "the
374     whole pattern". For a DEFINE condition, just the single byte OP_DEF is used (it
375     has no associated data). Otherwise, a conditional subpattern always starts with
376     one of the assertions.
377 nigel 41
379 nigel 71 Recursion
380     ---------
382     Recursion either matches the current regex, or some subexpression. The opcode
383     OP_RECURSE is followed by an value which is the offset to the starting bracket
384 nigel 87 from the start of the whole pattern. From release 6.5, OP_RECURSE is
385     automatically wrapped inside OP_ONCE brackets (because otherwise some patterns
386     broke it). OP_RECURSE is also used for "subroutine" calls, even though they
387     are not strictly a recursion.
388 nigel 71
390     Callout
391     -------
393 nigel 75 OP_CALLOUT is followed by one byte of data that holds a callout number in the
394     range 0 to 254 for manual callouts, or 255 for an automatic callout. In both
395     cases there follows a two-byte value giving the offset in the pattern to the
396     start of the following item, and another two-byte item giving the length of the
397     next item.
398 nigel 71
400 nigel 41 Changing options
401     ----------------
403 nigel 63 If any of the /i, /m, or /s options are changed within a pattern, an OP_OPT
404     opcode is compiled, followed by one byte containing the new settings of these
405     flags. If there are several alternatives, there is an occurrence of OP_OPT at
406     the start of all those following the first options change, to set appropriate
407     options for the start of the alternative. Immediately after the end of the
408     group there is another such item to reset the flags to their previous values. A
409     change of flag right at the very start of the pattern can be handled entirely
410     at compile time, and so does not cause anything to be put into the compiled
411     data.
412 nigel 41
413     Philip Hazel
414 ph10 212 August 2007

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