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1  ChangeLog for PCRE  ChangeLog for PCRE
2  ------------------  ------------------
3    
4    Version 7.1 05-Mar-07
5    ---------------------
6    
7     1. Applied Bob Rossi and Daniel G's patches to convert the build system to one
8        that is more "standard", making use of automake and other autotools. There
9        is some re-arrangement of the files and adjustment of comments consequent
10        on this.
11    
12     2. Part of the patch fixed a problem with the pcregrep tests. The test of -r
13        for recursive directory scanning broke on some systems because the files
14        are not scanned in any specific order and on different systems the order
15        was different. A call to "sort" has been inserted into RunGrepTest for the
16        approprate test as a short-term fix. In the longer term there may be an
17        alternative.
18    
19     3. I had an email from Eric Raymond about problems translating some of PCRE's
20        man pages to HTML (despite the fact that I distribute HTML pages, some
21        people do their own conversions for various reasons). The problems
22        concerned the use of low-level troff macros .br and .in. I have therefore
23        removed all such uses from the man pages (some were redundant, some could
24        be replaced by .nf/.fi pairs). The maintain/132html script that I use to
25        generate HTML has been updated to handle .nf/.fi and to complain if it
26        encounters .br or .in.
27    
28     4. Updated comments in configure.ac that get placed in config.h.in and also
29        arranged for config.h to be included in the distribution, for the benefit
30        of those who have to compile without Autotools (compare pcre.h).
31    
32     5. Updated the support (such as it is) for Virtual Pascal, thanks to Stefan
33        Weber: (1) pcre_internal.h was missing some function renames; (2) updated
34        makevp.bat for the current PCRE, using the additional files !compile.txt,
35        !linklib.txt, and pcregexp.pas.
36    
37     6. A Windows user reported a minor discrepancy with test 2, which turned out
38        to be caused by a trailing space on an input line that had got lost in his
39        copy. The trailing space was an accident, so I've just removed it.
40    
41     7. Add -Wl,-R... flags in pcre-config.in for *BSD* systems, as I'm told
42        that is needed.
43    
44     8. Mark ucp_table (in ucptable.h) and ucp_gentype (in pcre_ucp_searchfuncs.c)
45        as "const" (a) because they are and (b) because it helps the PHP
46        maintainers who have recently made a script to detect big data structures
47        in the php code that should be moved to the .rodata section. I remembered
48        to update Builducptable as well, so it won't revert if ucptable.h is ever
49        re-created.
50    
51    
52    Version 7.0 19-Dec-06
53    ---------------------
54    
55     1. Fixed a signed/unsigned compiler warning in pcre_compile.c, shown up by
56        moving to gcc 4.1.1.
57    
58     2. The -S option for pcretest uses setrlimit(); I had omitted to #include
59        sys/time.h, which is documented as needed for this function. It doesn't
60        seem to matter on Linux, but it showed up on some releases of OS X.
61    
62     3. It seems that there are systems where bytes whose values are greater than
63        127 match isprint() in the "C" locale. The "C" locale should be the
64        default when a C program starts up. In most systems, only ASCII printing
65        characters match isprint(). This difference caused the output from pcretest
66        to vary, making some of the tests fail. I have changed pcretest so that:
67    
68        (a) When it is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern, bytes
69            other than 32-126 are always shown as hex escapes.
70    
71        (b) When it is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject string,
72            it does the same, unless a different locale has been set for the match
73            (using the /L modifier). In this case, it uses isprint() to decide.
74    
75     4. Fixed a major bug that caused incorrect computation of the amount of memory
76        required for a compiled pattern when options that changed within the
77        pattern affected the logic of the preliminary scan that determines the
78        length. The relevant options are -x, and -i in UTF-8 mode. The result was
79        that the computed length was too small. The symptoms of this bug were
80        either the PCRE error "internal error: code overflow" from pcre_compile(),
81        or a glibc crash with a message such as "pcretest: free(): invalid next
82        size (fast)". Examples of patterns that provoked this bug (shown in
83        pcretest format) are:
84    
85          /(?-x: )/x
86          /(?x)(?-x: \s*#\s*)/
87          /((?i)[\x{c0}])/8
88          /(?i:[\x{c0}])/8
89    
90        HOWEVER: Change 17 below makes this fix obsolete as the memory computation
91        is now done differently.
92    
93     5. Applied patches from Google to: (a) add a QuoteMeta function to the C++
94        wrapper classes; (b) implement a new function in the C++ scanner that is
95        more efficient than the old way of doing things because it avoids levels of
96        recursion in the regex matching; (c) add a paragraph to the documentation
97        for the FullMatch() function.
98    
99     6. The escape sequence \n was being treated as whatever was defined as
100        "newline". Not only was this contrary to the documentation, which states
101        that \n is character 10 (hex 0A), but it also went horribly wrong when
102        "newline" was defined as CRLF. This has been fixed.
103    
104     7. In pcre_dfa_exec.c the value of an unsigned integer (the variable called c)
105        was being set to -1 for the "end of line" case (supposedly a value that no
106        character can have). Though this value is never used (the check for end of
107        line is "zero bytes in current character"), it caused compiler complaints.
108        I've changed it to 0xffffffff.
109    
110     8. In pcre_version.c, the version string was being built by a sequence of
111        C macros that, in the event of PCRE_PRERELEASE being defined as an empty
112        string (as it is for production releases) called a macro with an empty
113        argument. The C standard says the result of this is undefined. The gcc
114        compiler treats it as an empty string (which was what was wanted) but it is
115        reported that Visual C gives an error. The source has been hacked around to
116        avoid this problem.
117    
118     9. On the advice of a Windows user, included <io.h> and <fcntl.h> in Windows
119        builds of pcretest, and changed the call to _setmode() to use _O_BINARY
120        instead of 0x8000. Made all the #ifdefs test both _WIN32 and WIN32 (not all
121        of them did).
122    
123    10. Originally, pcretest opened its input and output without "b"; then I was
124        told that "b" was needed in some environments, so it was added for release
125        5.0 to both the input and output. (It makes no difference on Unix-like
126        systems.) Later I was told that it is wrong for the input on Windows. I've
127        now abstracted the modes into two macros, to make it easier to fiddle with
128        them, and removed "b" from the input mode under Windows.
129    
130    11. Added pkgconfig support for the C++ wrapper library, libpcrecpp.
131    
132    12. Added -help and --help to pcretest as an official way of being reminded
133        of the options.
134    
135    13. Removed some redundant semicolons after macro calls in pcrecpparg.h.in
136        and pcrecpp.cc because they annoy compilers at high warning levels.
137    
138    14. A bit of tidying/refactoring in pcre_exec.c in the main bumpalong loop.
139    
140    15. Fixed an occurrence of == in configure.ac that should have been = (shell
141        scripts are not C programs :-) and which was not noticed because it works
142        on Linux.
143    
144    16. pcretest is supposed to handle any length of pattern and data line (as one
145        line or as a continued sequence of lines) by extending its input buffer if
146        necessary. This feature was broken for very long pattern lines, leading to
147        a string of junk being passed to pcre_compile() if the pattern was longer
148        than about 50K.
149    
150    17. I have done a major re-factoring of the way pcre_compile() computes the
151        amount of memory needed for a compiled pattern. Previously, there was code
152        that made a preliminary scan of the pattern in order to do this. That was
153        OK when PCRE was new, but as the facilities have expanded, it has become
154        harder and harder to keep it in step with the real compile phase, and there
155        have been a number of bugs (see for example, 4 above). I have now found a
156        cunning way of running the real compile function in a "fake" mode that
157        enables it to compute how much memory it would need, while actually only
158        ever using a few hundred bytes of working memory and without too many
159        tests of the mode. This should make future maintenance and development
160        easier. A side effect of this work is that the limit of 200 on the nesting
161        depth of parentheses has been removed (though this was never a serious
162        limitation, I suspect). However, there is a downside: pcre_compile() now
163        runs more slowly than before (30% or more, depending on the pattern). I
164        hope this isn't a big issue. There is no effect on runtime performance.
165    
166    18. Fixed a minor bug in pcretest: if a pattern line was not terminated by a
167        newline (only possible for the last line of a file) and it was a
168        pattern that set a locale (followed by /Lsomething), pcretest crashed.
169    
170    19. Added additional timing features to pcretest. (1) The -tm option now times
171        matching only, not compiling. (2) Both -t and -tm can be followed, as a
172        separate command line item, by a number that specifies the number of
173        repeats to use when timing. The default is 50000; this gives better
174        precision, but takes uncomfortably long for very large patterns.
175    
176    20. Extended pcre_study() to be more clever in cases where a branch of a
177        subpattern has no definite first character. For example, (a*|b*)[cd] would
178        previously give no result from pcre_study(). Now it recognizes that the
179        first character must be a, b, c, or d.
180    
181    21. There was an incorrect error "recursive call could loop indefinitely" if
182        a subpattern (or the entire pattern) that was being tested for matching an
183        empty string contained only one non-empty item after a nested subpattern.
184        For example, the pattern (?>\x{100}*)\d(?R) provoked this error
185        incorrectly, because the \d was being skipped in the check.
186    
187    22. The pcretest program now has a new pattern option /B and a command line
188        option -b, which is equivalent to adding /B to every pattern. This causes
189        it to show the compiled bytecode, without the additional information that
190        -d shows. The effect of -d is now the same as -b with -i (and similarly, /D
191        is the same as /B/I).
192    
193    23. A new optimization is now able automatically to treat some sequences such
194        as a*b as a*+b. More specifically, if something simple (such as a character
195        or a simple class like \d) has an unlimited quantifier, and is followed by
196        something that cannot possibly match the quantified thing, the quantifier
197        is automatically "possessified".
198    
199    24. A recursive reference to a subpattern whose number was greater than 39
200        went wrong under certain circumstances in UTF-8 mode. This bug could also
201        have affected the operation of pcre_study().
202    
203    25. Realized that a little bit of performance could be had by replacing
204        (c & 0xc0) == 0xc0 with c >= 0xc0 when processing UTF-8 characters.
205    
206    26. Timing data from pcretest is now shown to 4 decimal places instead of 3.
207    
208    27. Possessive quantifiers such as a++ were previously implemented by turning
209        them into atomic groups such as ($>a+). Now they have their own opcodes,
210        which improves performance. This includes the automatically created ones
211        from 23 above.
212    
213    28. A pattern such as (?=(\w+))\1: which simulates an atomic group using a
214        lookahead was broken if it was not anchored. PCRE was mistakenly expecting
215        the first matched character to be a colon. This applied both to named and
216        numbered groups.
217    
218    29. The ucpinternal.h header file was missing its idempotency #ifdef.
219    
220    30. I was sent a "project" file called libpcre.a.dev which I understand makes
221        building PCRE on Windows easier, so I have included it in the distribution.
222    
223    31. There is now a check in pcretest against a ridiculously large number being
224        returned by pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec(). If this happens in a /g or /G
225        loop, the loop is abandoned.
226    
227    32. Forward references to subpatterns in conditions such as (?(2)...) where
228        subpattern 2 is defined later cause pcre_compile() to search forwards in
229        the pattern for the relevant set of parentheses. This search went wrong
230        when there were unescaped parentheses in a character class, parentheses
231        escaped with \Q...\E, or parentheses in a #-comment in /x mode.
232    
233    33. "Subroutine" calls and backreferences were previously restricted to
234        referencing subpatterns earlier in the regex. This restriction has now
235        been removed.
236    
237    34. Added a number of extra features that are going to be in Perl 5.10. On the
238        whole, these are just syntactic alternatives for features that PCRE had
239        previously implemented using the Python syntax or my own invention. The
240        other formats are all retained for compatibility.
241    
242        (a) Named groups can now be defined as (?<name>...) or (?'name'...) as well
243            as (?P<name>...). The new forms, as well as being in Perl 5.10, are
244            also .NET compatible.
245    
246        (b) A recursion or subroutine call to a named group can now be defined as
247            (?&name) as well as (?P>name).
248    
249        (c) A backreference to a named group can now be defined as \k<name> or
250            \k'name' as well as (?P=name). The new forms, as well as being in Perl
251            5.10, are also .NET compatible.
252    
253        (d) A conditional reference to a named group can now use the syntax
254            (?(<name>) or (?('name') as well as (?(name).
255    
256        (e) A "conditional group" of the form (?(DEFINE)...) can be used to define
257            groups (named and numbered) that are never evaluated inline, but can be
258            called as "subroutines" from elsewhere. In effect, the DEFINE condition
259            is always false. There may be only one alternative in such a group.
260    
261        (f) A test for recursion can be given as (?(R1).. or (?(R&name)... as well
262            as the simple (?(R). The condition is true only if the most recent
263            recursion is that of the given number or name. It does not search out
264            through the entire recursion stack.
265    
266        (g) The escape \gN or \g{N} has been added, where N is a positive or
267            negative number, specifying an absolute or relative reference.
268    
269    35. Tidied to get rid of some further signed/unsigned compiler warnings and
270        some "unreachable code" warnings.
271    
272    36. Updated the Unicode property tables to Unicode version 5.0.0. Amongst other
273        things, this adds five new scripts.
274    
275    37. Perl ignores orphaned \E escapes completely. PCRE now does the same.
276        There were also incompatibilities regarding the handling of \Q..\E inside
277        character classes, for example with patterns like [\Qa\E-\Qz\E] where the
278        hyphen was adjacent to \Q or \E. I hope I've cleared all this up now.
279    
280    38. Like Perl, PCRE detects when an indefinitely repeated parenthesized group
281        matches an empty string, and forcibly breaks the loop. There were bugs in
282        this code in non-simple cases. For a pattern such as  ^(a()*)*  matched
283        against  aaaa  the result was just "a" rather than "aaaa", for example. Two
284        separate and independent bugs (that affected different cases) have been
285        fixed.
286    
287    39. Refactored the code to abolish the use of different opcodes for small
288        capturing bracket numbers. This is a tidy that I avoided doing when I
289        removed the limit on the number of capturing brackets for 3.5 back in 2001.
290        The new approach is not only tidier, it makes it possible to reduce the
291        memory needed to fix the previous bug (38).
292    
293    40. Implemented PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY to recognize any of the Unicode newline
294        sequences (http://unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr18/) as "newline" when
295        processing dot, circumflex, or dollar metacharacters, or #-comments in /x
296        mode.
297    
298    41. Add \R to match any Unicode newline sequence, as suggested in the Unicode
299        report.
300    
301    42. Applied patch, originally from Ari Pollak, modified by Google, to allow
302        copy construction and assignment in the C++ wrapper.
303    
304    43. Updated pcregrep to support "--newline=any". In the process, I fixed a
305        couple of bugs that could have given wrong results in the "--newline=crlf"
306        case.
307    
308    44. Added a number of casts and did some reorganization of signed/unsigned int
309        variables following suggestions from Dair Grant. Also renamed the variable
310        "this" as "item" because it is a C++ keyword.
311    
312    45. Arranged for dftables to add
313    
314          #include "pcre_internal.h"
315    
316        to pcre_chartables.c because without it, gcc 4.x may remove the array
317        definition from the final binary if PCRE is built into a static library and
318        dead code stripping is activated.
319    
320    46. For an unanchored pattern, if a match attempt fails at the start of a
321        newline sequence, and the newline setting is CRLF or ANY, and the next two
322        characters are CRLF, advance by two characters instead of one.
323    
324    
325    Version 6.7 04-Jul-06
326    ---------------------
327    
328     1. In order to handle tests when input lines are enormously long, pcretest has
329        been re-factored so that it automatically extends its buffers when
330        necessary. The code is crude, but this _is_ just a test program. The
331        default size has been increased from 32K to 50K.
332    
333     2. The code in pcre_study() was using the value of the re argument before
334        testing it for NULL. (Of course, in any sensible call of the function, it
335        won't be NULL.)
336    
337     3. The memmove() emulation function in pcre_internal.h, which is used on
338        systems that lack both memmove() and bcopy() - that is, hardly ever -
339        was missing a "static" storage class specifier.
340    
341     4. When UTF-8 mode was not set, PCRE looped when compiling certain patterns
342        containing an extended class (one that cannot be represented by a bitmap
343        because it contains high-valued characters or Unicode property items, e.g.
344        [\pZ]). Almost always one would set UTF-8 mode when processing such a
345        pattern, but PCRE should not loop if you do not (it no longer does).
346        [Detail: two cases were found: (a) a repeated subpattern containing an
347        extended class; (b) a recursive reference to a subpattern that followed a
348        previous extended class. It wasn't skipping over the extended class
349        correctly when UTF-8 mode was not set.]
350    
351     5. A negated single-character class was not being recognized as fixed-length
352        in lookbehind assertions such as (?<=[^f]), leading to an incorrect
353        compile error "lookbehind assertion is not fixed length".
354    
355     6. The RunPerlTest auxiliary script was showing an unexpected difference
356        between PCRE and Perl for UTF-8 tests. It turns out that it is hard to
357        write a Perl script that can interpret lines of an input file either as
358        byte characters or as UTF-8, which is what "perltest" was being required to
359        do for the non-UTF-8 and UTF-8 tests, respectively. Essentially what you
360        can't do is switch easily at run time between having the "use utf8;" pragma
361        or not. In the end, I fudged it by using the RunPerlTest script to insert
362        "use utf8;" explicitly for the UTF-8 tests.
363    
364     7. In multiline (/m) mode, PCRE was matching ^ after a terminating newline at
365        the end of the subject string, contrary to the documentation and to what
366        Perl does. This was true of both matching functions. Now it matches only at
367        the start of the subject and immediately after *internal* newlines.
368    
369     8. A call of pcre_fullinfo() from pcretest to get the option bits was passing
370        a pointer to an int instead of a pointer to an unsigned long int. This
371        caused problems on 64-bit systems.
372    
373     9. Applied a patch from the folks at Google to pcrecpp.cc, to fix "another
374        instance of the 'standard' template library not being so standard".
375    
376    10. There was no check on the number of named subpatterns nor the maximum
377        length of a subpattern name. The product of these values is used to compute
378        the size of the memory block for a compiled pattern. By supplying a very
379        long subpattern name and a large number of named subpatterns, the size
380        computation could be caused to overflow. This is now prevented by limiting
381        the length of names to 32 characters, and the number of named subpatterns
382        to 10,000.
383    
384    11. Subpatterns that are repeated with specific counts have to be replicated in
385        the compiled pattern. The size of memory for this was computed from the
386        length of the subpattern and the repeat count. The latter is limited to
387        65535, but there was no limit on the former, meaning that integer overflow
388        could in principle occur. The compiled length of a repeated subpattern is
389        now limited to 30,000 bytes in order to prevent this.
390    
391    12. Added the optional facility to have named substrings with the same name.
392    
393    13. Added the ability to use a named substring as a condition, using the
394        Python syntax: (?(name)yes|no). This overloads (?(R)... and names that
395        are numbers (not recommended). Forward references are permitted.
396    
397    14. Added forward references in named backreferences (if you see what I mean).
398    
399    15. In UTF-8 mode, with the PCRE_DOTALL option set, a quantified dot in the
400        pattern could run off the end of the subject. For example, the pattern
401        "(?s)(.{1,5})"8 did this with the subject "ab".
402    
403    16. If PCRE_DOTALL or PCRE_MULTILINE were set, pcre_dfa_exec() behaved as if
404        PCRE_CASELESS was set when matching characters that were quantified with ?
405        or *.
406    
407    17. A character class other than a single negated character that had a minimum
408        but no maximum quantifier - for example [ab]{6,} - was not handled
409        correctly by pce_dfa_exec(). It would match only one character.
410    
411    18. A valid (though odd) pattern that looked like a POSIX character
412        class but used an invalid character after [ (for example [[,abc,]]) caused
413        pcre_compile() to give the error "Failed: internal error: code overflow" or
414        in some cases to crash with a glibc free() error. This could even happen if
415        the pattern terminated after [[ but there just happened to be a sequence of
416        letters, a binary zero, and a closing ] in the memory that followed.
417    
418    19. Perl's treatment of octal escapes in the range \400 to \777 has changed
419        over the years. Originally (before any Unicode support), just the bottom 8
420        bits were taken. Thus, for example, \500 really meant \100. Nowadays the
421        output from "man perlunicode" includes this:
422    
423          The regular expression compiler produces polymorphic opcodes.  That
424          is, the pattern adapts to the data and automatically switches to
425          the Unicode character scheme when presented with Unicode data--or
426          instead uses a traditional byte scheme when presented with byte
427          data.
428    
429        Sadly, a wide octal escape does not cause a switch, and in a string with
430        no other multibyte characters, these octal escapes are treated as before.
431        Thus, in Perl, the pattern  /\500/ actually matches \100 but the pattern
432        /\500|\x{1ff}/ matches \500 or \777 because the whole thing is treated as a
433        Unicode string.
434    
435        I have not perpetrated such confusion in PCRE. Up till now, it took just
436        the bottom 8 bits, as in old Perl. I have now made octal escapes with
437        values greater than \377 illegal in non-UTF-8 mode. In UTF-8 mode they
438        translate to the appropriate multibyte character.
439    
440    29. Applied some refactoring to reduce the number of warnings from Microsoft
441        and Borland compilers. This has included removing the fudge introduced
442        seven years ago for the OS/2 compiler (see 2.02/2 below) because it caused
443        a warning about an unused variable.
444    
445    21. PCRE has not included VT (character 0x0b) in the set of whitespace
446        characters since release 4.0, because Perl (from release 5.004) does not.
447        [Or at least, is documented not to: some releases seem to be in conflict
448        with the documentation.] However, when a pattern was studied with
449        pcre_study() and all its branches started with \s, PCRE still included VT
450        as a possible starting character. Of course, this did no harm; it just
451        caused an unnecessary match attempt.
452    
453    22. Removed a now-redundant internal flag bit that recorded the fact that case
454        dependency changed within the pattern. This was once needed for "required
455        byte" processing, but is no longer used. This recovers a now-scarce options
456        bit. Also moved the least significant internal flag bit to the most-
457        significant bit of the word, which was not previously used (hangover from
458        the days when it was an int rather than a uint) to free up another bit for
459        the future.
460    
461    23. Added support for CRLF line endings as well as CR and LF. As well as the
462        default being selectable at build time, it can now be changed at runtime
463        via the PCRE_NEWLINE_xxx flags. There are now options for pcregrep to
464        specify that it is scanning data with non-default line endings.
465    
466    24. Changed the definition of CXXLINK to make it agree with the definition of
467        LINK in the Makefile, by replacing LDFLAGS to CXXFLAGS.
468    
469    25. Applied Ian Taylor's patches to avoid using another stack frame for tail
470        recursions. This makes a big different to stack usage for some patterns.
471    
472    26. If a subpattern containing a named recursion or subroutine reference such
473        as (?P>B) was quantified, for example (xxx(?P>B)){3}, the calculation of
474        the space required for the compiled pattern went wrong and gave too small a
475        value. Depending on the environment, this could lead to "Failed: internal
476        error: code overflow at offset 49" or "glibc detected double free or
477        corruption" errors.
478    
479    27. Applied patches from Google (a) to support the new newline modes and (b) to
480        advance over multibyte UTF-8 characters in GlobalReplace.
481    
482    28. Change free() to pcre_free() in pcredemo.c. Apparently this makes a
483        difference for some implementation of PCRE in some Windows version.
484    
485    29. Added some extra testing facilities to pcretest:
486    
487        \q<number>   in a data line sets the "match limit" value
488        \Q<number>   in a data line sets the "match recursion limt" value
489        -S <number>  sets the stack size, where <number> is in megabytes
490    
491        The -S option isn't available for Windows.
492    
493    
494    Version 6.6 06-Feb-06
495    ---------------------
496    
497     1. Change 16(a) for 6.5 broke things, because PCRE_DATA_SCOPE was not defined
498        in pcreposix.h. I have copied the definition from pcre.h.
499    
500     2. Change 25 for 6.5 broke compilation in a build directory out-of-tree
501        because pcre.h is no longer a built file.
502    
503     3. Added Jeff Friedl's additional debugging patches to pcregrep. These are
504        not normally included in the compiled code.
505    
506    
507    Version 6.5 01-Feb-06
508    ---------------------
509    
510     1. When using the partial match feature with pcre_dfa_exec(), it was not
511        anchoring the second and subsequent partial matches at the new starting
512        point. This could lead to incorrect results. For example, with the pattern
513        /1234/, partially matching against "123" and then "a4" gave a match.
514    
515     2. Changes to pcregrep:
516    
517        (a) All non-match returns from pcre_exec() were being treated as failures
518            to match the line. Now, unless the error is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, an
519            error message is output. Some extra information is given for the
520            PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT and PCRE_ERROR_RECURSIONLIMIT errors, which are
521            probably the only errors that are likely to be caused by users (by
522            specifying a regex that has nested indefinite repeats, for instance).
523            If there are more than 20 of these errors, pcregrep is abandoned.
524    
525        (b) A binary zero was treated as data while matching, but terminated the
526            output line if it was written out. This has been fixed: binary zeroes
527            are now no different to any other data bytes.
528    
529        (c) Whichever of the LC_ALL or LC_CTYPE environment variables is set is
530            used to set a locale for matching. The --locale=xxxx long option has
531            been added (no short equivalent) to specify a locale explicitly on the
532            pcregrep command, overriding the environment variables.
533    
534        (d) When -B was used with -n, some line numbers in the output were one less
535            than they should have been.
536    
537        (e) Added the -o (--only-matching) option.
538    
539        (f) If -A or -C was used with -c (count only), some lines of context were
540            accidentally printed for the final match.
541    
542        (g) Added the -H (--with-filename) option.
543    
544        (h) The combination of options -rh failed to suppress file names for files
545            that were found from directory arguments.
546    
547        (i) Added the -D (--devices) and -d (--directories) options.
548    
549        (j) Added the -F (--fixed-strings) option.
550    
551        (k) Allow "-" to be used as a file name for -f as well as for a data file.
552    
553        (l) Added the --colo(u)r option.
554    
555        (m) Added Jeffrey Friedl's -S testing option, but within #ifdefs so that it
556            is not present by default.
557    
558     3. A nasty bug was discovered in the handling of recursive patterns, that is,
559        items such as (?R) or (?1), when the recursion could match a number of
560        alternatives. If it matched one of the alternatives, but subsequently,
561        outside the recursion, there was a failure, the code tried to back up into
562        the recursion. However, because of the way PCRE is implemented, this is not
563        possible, and the result was an incorrect result from the match.
564    
565        In order to prevent this happening, the specification of recursion has
566        been changed so that all such subpatterns are automatically treated as
567        atomic groups. Thus, for example, (?R) is treated as if it were (?>(?R)).
568    
569     4. I had overlooked the fact that, in some locales, there are characters for
570        which isalpha() is true but neither isupper() nor islower() are true. In
571        the fr_FR locale, for instance, the \xAA and \xBA characters (ordmasculine
572        and ordfeminine) are like this. This affected the treatment of \w and \W
573        when they appeared in character classes, but not when they appeared outside
574        a character class. The bit map for "word" characters is now created
575        separately from the results of isalnum() instead of just taking it from the
576        upper, lower, and digit maps. (Plus the underscore character, of course.)
577    
578     5. The above bug also affected the handling of POSIX character classes such as
579        [[:alpha:]] and [[:alnum:]]. These do not have their own bit maps in PCRE's
580        permanent tables. Instead, the bit maps for such a class were previously
581        created as the appropriate unions of the upper, lower, and digit bitmaps.
582        Now they are created by subtraction from the [[:word:]] class, which has
583        its own bitmap.
584    
585     6. The [[:blank:]] character class matches horizontal, but not vertical space.
586        It is created by subtracting the vertical space characters (\x09, \x0a,
587        \x0b, \x0c) from the [[:space:]] bitmap. Previously, however, the
588        subtraction was done in the overall bitmap for a character class, meaning
589        that a class such as [\x0c[:blank:]] was incorrect because \x0c would not
590        be recognized. This bug has been fixed.
591    
592     7. Patches from the folks at Google:
593    
594          (a) pcrecpp.cc: "to handle a corner case that may or may not happen in
595          real life, but is still worth protecting against".
596    
597          (b) pcrecpp.cc: "corrects a bug when negative radixes are used with
598          regular expressions".
599    
600          (c) pcre_scanner.cc: avoid use of std::count() because not all systems
601          have it.
602    
603          (d) Split off pcrecpparg.h from pcrecpp.h and had the former built by
604          "configure" and the latter not, in order to fix a problem somebody had
605          with compiling the Arg class on HP-UX.
606    
607          (e) Improve the error-handling of the C++ wrapper a little bit.
608    
609          (f) New tests for checking recursion limiting.
610    
611     8. The pcre_memmove() function, which is used only if the environment does not
612        have a standard memmove() function (and is therefore rarely compiled),
613        contained two bugs: (a) use of int instead of size_t, and (b) it was not
614        returning a result (though PCRE never actually uses the result).
615    
616     9. In the POSIX regexec() interface, if nmatch is specified as a ridiculously
617        large number - greater than INT_MAX/(3*sizeof(int)) - REG_ESPACE is
618        returned instead of calling malloc() with an overflowing number that would
619        most likely cause subsequent chaos.
620    
621    10. The debugging option of pcretest was not showing the NO_AUTO_CAPTURE flag.
622    
623    11. The POSIX flag REG_NOSUB is now supported. When a pattern that was compiled
624        with this option is matched, the nmatch and pmatch options of regexec() are
625        ignored.
626    
627    12. Added REG_UTF8 to the POSIX interface. This is not defined by POSIX, but is
628        provided in case anyone wants to the the POSIX interface with UTF-8
629        strings.
630    
631    13. Added CXXLDFLAGS to the Makefile parameters to provide settings only on the
632        C++ linking (needed for some HP-UX environments).
633    
634    14. Avoid compiler warnings in get_ucpname() when compiled without UCP support
635        (unused parameter) and in the pcre_printint() function (omitted "default"
636        switch label when the default is to do nothing).
637    
638    15. Added some code to make it possible, when PCRE is compiled as a C++
639        library, to replace subject pointers for pcre_exec() with a smart pointer
640        class, thus making it possible to process discontinuous strings.
641    
642    16. The two macros PCRE_EXPORT and PCRE_DATA_SCOPE are confusing, and perform
643        much the same function. They were added by different people who were trying
644        to make PCRE easy to compile on non-Unix systems. It has been suggested
645        that PCRE_EXPORT be abolished now that there is more automatic apparatus
646        for compiling on Windows systems. I have therefore replaced it with
647        PCRE_DATA_SCOPE. This is set automatically for Windows; if not set it
648        defaults to "extern" for C or "extern C" for C++, which works fine on
649        Unix-like systems. It is now possible to override the value of PCRE_DATA_
650        SCOPE with something explicit in config.h. In addition:
651    
652        (a) pcreposix.h still had just "extern" instead of either of these macros;
653            I have replaced it with PCRE_DATA_SCOPE.
654    
655        (b) Functions such as _pcre_xclass(), which are internal to the library,
656            but external in the C sense, all had PCRE_EXPORT in their definitions.
657            This is apparently wrong for the Windows case, so I have removed it.
658            (It makes no difference on Unix-like systems.)
659    
660    17. Added a new limit, MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION, which limits the depth of nesting
661        of recursive calls to match(). This is different to MATCH_LIMIT because
662        that limits the total number of calls to match(), not all of which increase
663        the depth of recursion. Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of
664        stack (or heap if NO_RECURSE is set) that is used. The default can be set
665        when PCRE is compiled, and changed at run time. A patch from Google adds
666        this functionality to the C++ interface.
667    
668    18. Changes to the handling of Unicode character properties:
669    
670        (a) Updated the table to Unicode 4.1.0.
671    
672        (b) Recognize characters that are not in the table as "Cn" (undefined).
673    
674        (c) I revised the way the table is implemented to a much improved format
675            which includes recognition of ranges. It now supports the ranges that
676            are defined in UnicodeData.txt, and it also amalgamates other
677            characters into ranges. This has reduced the number of entries in the
678            table from around 16,000 to around 3,000, thus reducing its size
679            considerably. I realized I did not need to use a tree structure after
680            all - a binary chop search is just as efficient. Having reduced the
681            number of entries, I extended their size from 6 bytes to 8 bytes to
682            allow for more data.
683    
684        (d) Added support for Unicode script names via properties such as \p{Han}.
685    
686    19. In UTF-8 mode, a backslash followed by a non-Ascii character was not
687        matching that character.
688    
689    20. When matching a repeated Unicode property with a minimum greater than zero,
690        (for example \pL{2,}), PCRE could look past the end of the subject if it
691        reached it while seeking the minimum number of characters. This could
692        happen only if some of the characters were more than one byte long, because
693        there is a check for at least the minimum number of bytes.
694    
695    21. Refactored the implementation of \p and \P so as to be more general, to
696        allow for more different types of property in future. This has changed the
697        compiled form incompatibly. Anybody with saved compiled patterns that use
698        \p or \P will have to recompile them.
699    
700    22. Added "Any" and "L&" to the supported property types.
701    
702    23. Recognize \x{...} as a code point specifier, even when not in UTF-8 mode,
703        but give a compile time error if the value is greater than 0xff.
704    
705    24. The man pages for pcrepartial, pcreprecompile, and pcre_compile2 were
706        accidentally not being installed or uninstalled.
707    
708    25. The pcre.h file was built from pcre.h.in, but the only changes that were
709        made were to insert the current release number. This seemed silly, because
710        it made things harder for people building PCRE on systems that don't run
711        "configure". I have turned pcre.h into a distributed file, no longer built
712        by "configure", with the version identification directly included. There is
713        no longer a pcre.h.in file.
714    
715        However, this change necessitated a change to the pcre-config script as
716        well. It is built from pcre-config.in, and one of the substitutions was the
717        release number. I have updated configure.ac so that ./configure now finds
718        the release number by grepping pcre.h.
719    
720    26. Added the ability to run the tests under valgrind.
721    
722    
723    Version 6.4 05-Sep-05
724    ---------------------
725    
726     1. Change 6.0/10/(l) to pcregrep introduced a bug that caused separator lines
727        "--" to be printed when multiple files were scanned, even when none of the
728        -A, -B, or -C options were used. This is not compatible with Gnu grep, so I
729        consider it to be a bug, and have restored the previous behaviour.
730    
731     2. A couple of code tidies to get rid of compiler warnings.
732    
733     3. The pcretest program used to cheat by referring to symbols in the library
734        whose names begin with _pcre_. These are internal symbols that are not
735        really supposed to be visible externally, and in some environments it is
736        possible to suppress them. The cheating is now confined to including
737        certain files from the library's source, which is a bit cleaner.
738    
739     4. Renamed pcre.in as pcre.h.in to go with pcrecpp.h.in; it also makes the
740        file's purpose clearer.
741    
742     5. Reorganized pcre_ucp_findchar().
743    
744    
745    Version 6.3 15-Aug-05
746    ---------------------
747    
748     1. The file libpcre.pc.in did not have general read permission in the tarball.
749    
750     2. There were some problems when building without C++ support:
751    
752        (a) If C++ support was not built, "make install" and "make test" still
753            tried to test it.
754    
755        (b) There were problems when the value of CXX was explicitly set. Some
756            changes have been made to try to fix these, and ...
757    
758        (c) --disable-cpp can now be used to explicitly disable C++ support.
759    
760        (d) The use of @CPP_OBJ@ directly caused a blank line preceded by a
761            backslash in a target when C++ was disabled. This confuses some
762            versions of "make", apparently. Using an intermediate variable solves
763            this. (Same for CPP_LOBJ.)
764    
765     3. $(LINK_FOR_BUILD) now includes $(CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD) and $(LINK)
766        (non-Windows) now includes $(CFLAGS) because these flags are sometimes
767        necessary on certain architectures.
768    
769     4. Added a setting of -export-symbols-regex to the link command to remove
770        those symbols that are exported in the C sense, but actually are local
771        within the library, and not documented. Their names all begin with
772        "_pcre_". This is not a perfect job, because (a) we have to except some
773        symbols that pcretest ("illegally") uses, and (b) the facility isn't always
774        available (and never for static libraries). I have made a note to try to
775        find a way round (a) in the future.
776    
777    
778    Version 6.2 01-Aug-05
779    ---------------------
780    
781     1. There was no test for integer overflow of quantifier values. A construction
782        such as {1111111111111111} would give undefined results. What is worse, if
783        a minimum quantifier for a parenthesized subpattern overflowed and became
784        negative, the calculation of the memory size went wrong. This could have
785        led to memory overwriting.
786    
787     2. Building PCRE using VPATH was broken. Hopefully it is now fixed.
788    
789     3. Added "b" to the 2nd argument of fopen() in dftables.c, for non-Unix-like
790        operating environments where this matters.
791    
792     4. Applied Giuseppe Maxia's patch to add additional features for controlling
793        PCRE options from within the C++ wrapper.
794    
795     5. Named capturing subpatterns were not being correctly counted when a pattern
796        was compiled. This caused two problems: (a) If there were more than 100
797        such subpatterns, the calculation of the memory needed for the whole
798        compiled pattern went wrong, leading to an overflow error. (b) Numerical
799        back references of the form \12, where the number was greater than 9, were
800        not recognized as back references, even though there were sufficient
801        previous subpatterns.
802    
803     6. Two minor patches to pcrecpp.cc in order to allow it to compile on older
804        versions of gcc, e.g. 2.95.4.
805    
806    
807    Version 6.1 21-Jun-05
808    ---------------------
809    
810     1. There was one reference to the variable "posix" in pcretest.c that was not
811        surrounded by "#if !defined NOPOSIX".
812    
813     2. Make it possible to compile pcretest without DFA support, UTF8 support, or
814        the cross-check on the old pcre_info() function, for the benefit of the
815        cut-down version of PCRE that is currently imported into Exim.
816    
817     3. A (silly) pattern starting with (?i)(?-i) caused an internal space
818        allocation error. I've done the easy fix, which wastes 2 bytes for sensible
819        patterns that start (?i) but I don't think that matters. The use of (?i) is
820        just an example; this all applies to the other options as well.
821    
822     4. Since libtool seems to echo the compile commands it is issuing, the output
823        from "make" can be reduced a bit by putting "@" in front of each libtool
824        compile command.
825    
826     5. Patch from the folks at Google for configure.in to be a bit more thorough
827        in checking for a suitable C++ installation before trying to compile the
828        C++ stuff. This should fix a reported problem when a compiler was present,
829        but no suitable headers.
830    
831     6. The man pages all had just "PCRE" as their title. I have changed them to
832        be the relevant file name. I have also arranged that these names are
833        retained in the file doc/pcre.txt, which is a concatenation in text format
834        of all the man pages except the little individual ones for each function.
835    
836     7. The NON-UNIX-USE file had not been updated for the different set of source
837        files that come with release 6. I also added a few comments about the C++
838        wrapper.
839    
840    
841    Version 6.0 07-Jun-05
842    ---------------------
843    
844     1. Some minor internal re-organization to help with my DFA experiments.
845    
846     2. Some missing #ifdef SUPPORT_UCP conditionals in pcretest and printint that
847        didn't matter for the library itself when fully configured, but did matter
848        when compiling without UCP support, or within Exim, where the ucp files are
849        not imported.
850    
851     3. Refactoring of the library code to split up the various functions into
852        different source modules. The addition of the new DFA matching code (see
853        below) to a single monolithic source would have made it really too
854        unwieldy, quite apart from causing all the code to be include in a
855        statically linked application, when only some functions are used. This is
856        relevant even without the DFA addition now that patterns can be compiled in
857        one application and matched in another.
858    
859        The downside of splitting up is that there have to be some external
860        functions and data tables that are used internally in different modules of
861        the library but which are not part of the API. These have all had their
862        names changed to start with "_pcre_" so that they are unlikely to clash
863        with other external names.
864    
865     4. Added an alternate matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), which matches using
866        a different (DFA) algorithm. Although it is slower than the original
867        function, it does have some advantages for certain types of matching
868        problem.
869    
870     5. Upgrades to pcretest in order to test the features of pcre_dfa_exec(),
871        including restarting after a partial match.
872    
873     6. A patch for pcregrep that defines INVALID_FILE_ATTRIBUTES if it is not
874        defined when compiling for Windows was sent to me. I have put it into the
875        code, though I have no means of testing or verifying it.
876    
877     7. Added the pcre_refcount() auxiliary function.
878    
879     8. Added the PCRE_FIRSTLINE option. This constrains an unanchored pattern to
880        match before or at the first newline in the subject string. In pcretest,
881        the /f option on a pattern can be used to set this.
882    
883     9. A repeated \w when used in UTF-8 mode with characters greater than 256
884        would behave wrongly. This has been present in PCRE since release 4.0.
885    
886    10. A number of changes to the pcregrep command:
887    
888        (a) Refactored how -x works; insert ^(...)$ instead of setting
889            PCRE_ANCHORED and checking the length, in preparation for adding
890            something similar for -w.
891    
892        (b) Added the -w (match as a word) option.
893    
894        (c) Refactored the way lines are read and buffered so as to have more
895            than one at a time available.
896    
897        (d) Implemented a pcregrep test script.
898    
899        (e) Added the -M (multiline match) option. This allows patterns to match
900            over several lines of the subject. The buffering ensures that at least
901            8K, or the rest of the document (whichever is the shorter) is available
902            for matching (and similarly the previous 8K for lookbehind assertions).
903    
904        (f) Changed the --help output so that it now says
905    
906              -w, --word-regex(p)
907    
908            instead of two lines, one with "regex" and the other with "regexp"
909            because that confused at least one person since the short forms are the
910            same. (This required a bit of code, as the output is generated
911            automatically from a table. It wasn't just a text change.)
912    
913        (g) -- can be used to terminate pcregrep options if the next thing isn't an
914            option but starts with a hyphen. Could be a pattern or a path name
915            starting with a hyphen, for instance.
916    
917        (h) "-" can be given as a file name to represent stdin.
918    
919        (i) When file names are being printed, "(standard input)" is used for
920            the standard input, for compatibility with GNU grep. Previously
921            "<stdin>" was used.
922    
923        (j) The option --label=xxx can be used to supply a name to be used for
924            stdin when file names are being printed. There is no short form.
925    
926        (k) Re-factored the options decoding logic because we are going to add
927            two more options that take data. Such options can now be given in four
928            different ways, e.g. "-fname", "-f name", "--file=name", "--file name".
929    
930        (l) Added the -A, -B, and -C options for requesting that lines of context
931            around matches be printed.
932    
933        (m) Added the -L option to print the names of files that do not contain
934            any matching lines, that is, the complement of -l.
935    
936        (n) The return code is 2 if any file cannot be opened, but pcregrep does
937            continue to scan other files.
938    
939        (o) The -s option was incorrectly implemented. For compatibility with other
940            greps, it now suppresses the error message for a non-existent or non-
941            accessible file (but not the return code). There is a new option called
942            -q that suppresses the output of matching lines, which was what -s was
943            previously doing.
944    
945        (p) Added --include and --exclude options to specify files for inclusion
946            and exclusion when recursing.
947    
948    11. The Makefile was not using the Autoconf-supported LDFLAGS macro properly.
949        Hopefully, it now does.
950    
951    12. Missing cast in pcre_study().
952    
953    13. Added an "uninstall" target to the makefile.
954    
955    14. Replaced "extern" in the function prototypes in Makefile.in with
956        "PCRE_DATA_SCOPE", which defaults to 'extern' or 'extern "C"' in the Unix
957        world, but is set differently for Windows.
958    
959    15. Added a second compiling function called pcre_compile2(). The only
960        difference is that it has an extra argument, which is a pointer to an
961        integer error code. When there is a compile-time failure, this is set
962        non-zero, in addition to the error test pointer being set to point to an
963        error message. The new argument may be NULL if no error number is required
964        (but then you may as well call pcre_compile(), which is now just a
965        wrapper). This facility is provided because some applications need a
966        numeric error indication, but it has also enabled me to tidy up the way
967        compile-time errors are handled in the POSIX wrapper.
968    
969    16. Added VPATH=.libs to the makefile; this should help when building with one
970        prefix path and installing with another. (Or so I'm told by someone who
971        knows more about this stuff than I do.)
972    
973    17. Added a new option, REG_DOTALL, to the POSIX function regcomp(). This
974        passes PCRE_DOTALL to the pcre_compile() function, making the "." character
975        match everything, including newlines. This is not POSIX-compatible, but
976        somebody wanted the feature. From pcretest it can be activated by using
977        both the P and the s flags.
978    
979    18. AC_PROG_LIBTOOL appeared twice in Makefile.in. Removed one.
980    
981    19. libpcre.pc was being incorrectly installed as executable.
982    
983    20. A couple of places in pcretest check for end-of-line by looking for '\n';
984        it now also looks for '\r' so that it will work unmodified on Windows.
985    
986    21. Added Google's contributed C++ wrapper to the distribution.
987    
988    22. Added some untidy missing memory free() calls in pcretest, to keep
989        Electric Fence happy when testing.
990    
991    
992    
993    Version 5.0 13-Sep-04
994    ---------------------
995    
996     1. Internal change: literal characters are no longer packed up into items
997        containing multiple characters in a single byte-string. Each character
998        is now matched using a separate opcode. However, there may be more than one
999        byte in the character in UTF-8 mode.
1000    
1001     2. The pcre_callout_block structure has two new fields: pattern_position and
1002        next_item_length. These contain the offset in the pattern to the next match
1003        item, and its length, respectively.
1004    
1005     3. The PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT option for pcre_compile() requests the automatic
1006        insertion of callouts before each pattern item. Added the /C option to
1007        pcretest to make use of this.
1008    
1009     4. On the advice of a Windows user, the lines
1010    
1011          #if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
1012          _setmode( _fileno( stdout ), 0x8000 );
1013          #endif  /* defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) */
1014    
1015        have been added to the source of pcretest. This apparently does useful
1016        magic in relation to line terminators.
1017    
1018     5. Changed "r" and "w" in the calls to fopen() in pcretest to "rb" and "wb"
1019        for the benefit of those environments where the "b" makes a difference.
1020    
1021     6. The icc compiler has the same options as gcc, but "configure" doesn't seem
1022        to know about it. I have put a hack into configure.in that adds in code
1023        to set GCC=yes if CC=icc. This seems to end up at a point in the
1024        generated configure script that is early enough to affect the setting of
1025        compiler options, which is what is needed, but I have no means of testing
1026        whether it really works. (The user who reported this had patched the
1027        generated configure script, which of course I cannot do.)
1028    
1029        LATER: After change 22 below (new libtool files), the configure script
1030        seems to know about icc (and also ecc). Therefore, I have commented out
1031        this hack in configure.in.
1032    
1033     7. Added support for pkg-config (2 patches were sent in).
1034    
1035     8. Negated POSIX character classes that used a combination of internal tables
1036        were completely broken. These were [[:^alpha:]], [[:^alnum:]], and
1037        [[:^ascii]]. Typically, they would match almost any characters. The other
1038        POSIX classes were not broken in this way.
1039    
1040     9. Matching the pattern "\b.*?" against "ab cd", starting at offset 1, failed
1041        to find the match, as PCRE was deluded into thinking that the match had to
1042        start at the start point or following a newline. The same bug applied to
1043        patterns with negative forward assertions or any backward assertions
1044        preceding ".*" at the start, unless the pattern required a fixed first
1045        character. This was a failing pattern: "(?!.bcd).*". The bug is now fixed.
1046    
1047    10. In UTF-8 mode, when moving forwards in the subject after a failed match
1048        starting at the last subject character, bytes beyond the end of the subject
1049        string were read.
1050    
1051    11. Renamed the variable "class" as "classbits" to make life easier for C++
1052        users. (Previously there was a macro definition, but it apparently wasn't
1053        enough.)
1054    
1055    12. Added the new field "tables" to the extra data so that tables can be passed
1056        in at exec time, or the internal tables can be re-selected. This allows
1057        a compiled regex to be saved and re-used at a later time by a different
1058        program that might have everything at different addresses.
1059    
1060    13. Modified the pcre-config script so that, when run on Solaris, it shows a
1061        -R library as well as a -L library.
1062    
1063    14. The debugging options of pcretest (-d on the command line or D on a
1064        pattern) showed incorrect output for anything following an extended class
1065        that contained multibyte characters and which was followed by a quantifier.
1066    
1067    15. Added optional support for general category Unicode character properties
1068        via the \p, \P, and \X escapes. Unicode property support implies UTF-8
1069        support. It adds about 90K to the size of the library. The meanings of the
1070        inbuilt class escapes such as \d and \s have NOT been changed.
1071    
1072    16. Updated pcredemo.c to include calls to free() to release the memory for the
1073        compiled pattern.
1074    
1075    17. The generated file chartables.c was being created in the source directory
1076        instead of in the building directory. This caused the build to fail if the
1077        source directory was different from the building directory, and was
1078        read-only.
1079    
1080    18. Added some sample Win commands from Mark Tetrode into the NON-UNIX-USE
1081        file. No doubt somebody will tell me if they don't make sense... Also added
1082        Dan Mooney's comments about building on OpenVMS.
1083    
1084    19. Added support for partial matching via the PCRE_PARTIAL option for
1085        pcre_exec() and the \P data escape in pcretest.
1086    
1087    20. Extended pcretest with 3 new pattern features:
1088    
1089        (i)   A pattern option of the form ">rest-of-line" causes pcretest to
1090              write the compiled pattern to the file whose name is "rest-of-line".
1091              This is a straight binary dump of the data, with the saved pointer to
1092              the character tables forced to be NULL. The study data, if any, is
1093              written too. After writing, pcretest reads a new pattern.
1094    
1095        (ii)  If, instead of a pattern, "<rest-of-line" is given, pcretest reads a
1096              compiled pattern from the given file. There must not be any
1097              occurrences of "<" in the file name (pretty unlikely); if there are,
1098              pcretest will instead treat the initial "<" as a pattern delimiter.
1099              After reading in the pattern, pcretest goes on to read data lines as
1100              usual.
1101    
1102        (iii) The F pattern option causes pcretest to flip the bytes in the 32-bit
1103              and 16-bit fields in a compiled pattern, to simulate a pattern that
1104              was compiled on a host of opposite endianness.
1105    
1106    21. The pcre-exec() function can now cope with patterns that were compiled on
1107        hosts of opposite endianness, with this restriction:
1108    
1109          As for any compiled expression that is saved and used later, the tables
1110          pointer field cannot be preserved; the extra_data field in the arguments
1111          to pcre_exec() should be used to pass in a tables address if a value
1112          other than the default internal tables were used at compile time.
1113    
1114    22. Calling pcre_exec() with a negative value of the "ovecsize" parameter is
1115        now diagnosed as an error. Previously, most of the time, a negative number
1116        would have been treated as zero, but if in addition "ovector" was passed as
1117        NULL, a crash could occur.
1118    
1119    23. Updated the files ltmain.sh, config.sub, config.guess, and aclocal.m4 with
1120        new versions from the libtool 1.5 distribution (the last one is a copy of
1121        a file called libtool.m4). This seems to have fixed the need to patch
1122        "configure" to support Darwin 1.3 (which I used to do). However, I still
1123        had to patch ltmain.sh to ensure that ${SED} is set (it isn't on my
1124        workstation).
1125    
1126    24. Changed the PCRE licence to be the more standard "BSD" licence.
1127    
1128    
1129    Version 4.5 01-Dec-03
1130    ---------------------
1131    
1132     1. There has been some re-arrangement of the code for the match() function so
1133        that it can be compiled in a version that does not call itself recursively.
1134        Instead, it keeps those local variables that need separate instances for
1135        each "recursion" in a frame on the heap, and gets/frees frames whenever it
1136        needs to "recurse". Keeping track of where control must go is done by means
1137        of setjmp/longjmp. The whole thing is implemented by a set of macros that
1138        hide most of the details from the main code, and operates only if
1139        NO_RECURSE is defined while compiling pcre.c. If PCRE is built using the
1140        "configure" mechanism, "--disable-stack-for-recursion" turns on this way of
1141        operating.
1142    
1143        To make it easier for callers to provide specially tailored get/free
1144        functions for this usage, two new functions, pcre_stack_malloc, and
1145        pcre_stack_free, are used. They are always called in strict stacking order,
1146        and the size of block requested is always the same.
1147    
1148        The PCRE_CONFIG_STACKRECURSE info parameter can be used to find out whether
1149        PCRE has been compiled to use the stack or the heap for recursion. The
1150        -C option of pcretest uses this to show which version is compiled.
1151    
1152        A new data escape \S, is added to pcretest; it causes the amounts of store
1153        obtained and freed by both kinds of malloc/free at match time to be added
1154        to the output.
1155    
1156     2. Changed the locale test to use "fr_FR" instead of "fr" because that's
1157        what's available on my current Linux desktop machine.
1158    
1159     3. When matching a UTF-8 string, the test for a valid string at the start has
1160        been extended. If start_offset is not zero, PCRE now checks that it points
1161        to a byte that is the start of a UTF-8 character. If not, it returns
1162        PCRE_ERROR_BADUTF8_OFFSET (-11). Note: the whole string is still checked;
1163        this is necessary because there may be backward assertions in the pattern.
1164        When matching the same subject several times, it may save resources to use
1165        PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK on all but the first call if the string is long.
1166    
1167     4. The code for checking the validity of UTF-8 strings has been tightened so
1168        that it rejects (a) strings containing 0xfe or 0xff bytes and (b) strings
1169        containing "overlong sequences".
1170    
1171     5. Fixed a bug (appearing twice) that I could not find any way of exploiting!
1172        I had written "if ((digitab[*p++] && chtab_digit) == 0)" where the "&&"
1173        should have been "&", but it just so happened that all the cases this let
1174        through by mistake were picked up later in the function.
1175    
1176     6. I had used a variable called "isblank" - this is a C99 function, causing
1177        some compilers to warn. To avoid this, I renamed it (as "blankclass").
1178    
1179     7. Cosmetic: (a) only output another newline at the end of pcretest if it is
1180        prompting; (b) run "./pcretest /dev/null" at the start of the test script
1181        so the version is shown; (c) stop "make test" echoing "./RunTest".
1182    
1183     8. Added patches from David Burgess to enable PCRE to run on EBCDIC systems.
1184    
1185     9. The prototype for memmove() for systems that don't have it was using
1186        size_t, but the inclusion of the header that defines size_t was later. I've
1187        moved the #includes for the C headers earlier to avoid this.
1188    
1189    10. Added some adjustments to the code to make it easier to compiler on certain
1190        special systems:
1191    
1192          (a) Some "const" qualifiers were missing.
1193          (b) Added the macro EXPORT before all exported functions; by default this
1194              is defined to be empty.
1195          (c) Changed the dftables auxiliary program (that builds chartables.c) so
1196              that it reads its output file name as an argument instead of writing
1197              to the standard output and assuming this can be redirected.
1198    
1199    11. In UTF-8 mode, if a recursive reference (e.g. (?1)) followed a character
1200        class containing characters with values greater than 255, PCRE compilation
1201        went into a loop.
1202    
1203    12. A recursive reference to a subpattern that was within another subpattern
1204        that had a minimum quantifier of zero caused PCRE to crash. For example,
1205        (x(y(?2))z)? provoked this bug with a subject that got as far as the
1206        recursion. If the recursively-called subpattern itself had a zero repeat,
1207        that was OK.
1208    
1209    13. In pcretest, the buffer for reading a data line was set at 30K, but the
1210        buffer into which it was copied (for escape processing) was still set at
1211        1024, so long lines caused crashes.
1212    
1213    14. A pattern such as /[ab]{1,3}+/ failed to compile, giving the error
1214        "internal error: code overflow...". This applied to any character class
1215        that was followed by a possessive quantifier.
1216    
1217    15. Modified the Makefile to add libpcre.la as a prerequisite for
1218        libpcreposix.la because I was told this is needed for a parallel build to
1219        work.
1220    
1221    16. If a pattern that contained .* following optional items at the start was
1222        studied, the wrong optimizing data was generated, leading to matching
1223        errors. For example, studying /[ab]*.*c/ concluded, erroneously, that any
1224        matching string must start with a or b or c. The correct conclusion for
1225        this pattern is that a match can start with any character.
1226    
1227    
1228    Version 4.4 13-Aug-03
1229    ---------------------
1230    
1231     1. In UTF-8 mode, a character class containing characters with values between
1232        127 and 255 was not handled correctly if the compiled pattern was studied.
1233        In fixing this, I have also improved the studying algorithm for such
1234        classes (slightly).
1235    
1236     2. Three internal functions had redundant arguments passed to them. Removal
1237        might give a very teeny performance improvement.
1238    
1239     3. Documentation bug: the value of the capture_top field in a callout is *one
1240        more than* the number of the hightest numbered captured substring.
1241    
1242     4. The Makefile linked pcretest and pcregrep with -lpcre, which could result
1243        in incorrectly linking with a previously installed version. They now link
1244        explicitly with libpcre.la.
1245    
1246     5. configure.in no longer needs to recognize Cygwin specially.
1247    
1248     6. A problem in pcre.in for Windows platforms is fixed.
1249    
1250     7. If a pattern was successfully studied, and the -d (or /D) flag was given to
1251        pcretest, it used to include the size of the study block as part of its
1252        output. Unfortunately, the structure contains a field that has a different
1253        size on different hardware architectures. This meant that the tests that
1254        showed this size failed. As the block is currently always of a fixed size,
1255        this information isn't actually particularly useful in pcretest output, so
1256        I have just removed it.
1257    
1258     8. Three pre-processor statements accidentally did not start in column 1.
1259        Sadly, there are *still* compilers around that complain, even though
1260        standard C has not required this for well over a decade. Sigh.
1261    
1262     9. In pcretest, the code for checking callouts passed small integers in the
1263        callout_data field, which is a void * field. However, some picky compilers
1264        complained about the casts involved for this on 64-bit systems. Now
1265        pcretest passes the address of the small integer instead, which should get
1266        rid of the warnings.
1267    
1268    10. By default, when in UTF-8 mode, PCRE now checks for valid UTF-8 strings at
1269        both compile and run time, and gives an error if an invalid UTF-8 sequence
1270        is found. There is a option for disabling this check in cases where the
1271        string is known to be correct and/or the maximum performance is wanted.
1272    
1273    11. In response to a bug report, I changed one line in Makefile.in from
1274    
1275            -Wl,--out-implib,.libs/lib@WIN_PREFIX@pcreposix.dll.a \
1276        to
1277            -Wl,--out-implib,.libs/@WIN_PREFIX@libpcreposix.dll.a \
1278    
1279        to look similar to other lines, but I have no way of telling whether this
1280        is the right thing to do, as I do not use Windows. No doubt I'll get told
1281        if it's wrong...
1282    
1283    
1284    Version 4.3 21-May-03
1285    ---------------------
1286    
1287    1. Two instances of @WIN_PREFIX@ omitted from the Windows targets in the
1288       Makefile.
1289    
1290    2. Some refactoring to improve the quality of the code:
1291    
1292       (i)   The utf8_table... variables are now declared "const".
1293    
1294       (ii)  The code for \cx, which used the "case flipping" table to upper case
1295             lower case letters, now just substracts 32. This is ASCII-specific,
1296             but the whole concept of \cx is ASCII-specific, so it seems
1297             reasonable.
1298    
1299       (iii) PCRE was using its character types table to recognize decimal and
1300             hexadecimal digits in the pattern. This is silly, because it handles
1301             only 0-9, a-f, and A-F, but the character types table is locale-
1302             specific, which means strange things might happen. A private
1303             table is now used for this - though it costs 256 bytes, a table is
1304             much faster than multiple explicit tests. Of course, the standard
1305             character types table is still used for matching digits in subject
1306             strings against \d.
1307    
1308       (iv)  Strictly, the identifier ESC_t is reserved by POSIX (all identifiers
1309             ending in _t are). So I've renamed it as ESC_tee.
1310    
1311    3. The first argument for regexec() in the POSIX wrapper should have been
1312       defined as "const".
1313    
1314    4. Changed pcretest to use malloc() for its buffers so that they can be
1315       Electric Fenced for debugging.
1316    
1317    5. There were several places in the code where, in UTF-8 mode, PCRE would try
1318       to read one or more bytes before the start of the subject string. Often this
1319       had no effect on PCRE's behaviour, but in some circumstances it could
1320       provoke a segmentation fault.
1321    
1322    6. A lookbehind at the start of a pattern in UTF-8 mode could also cause PCRE
1323       to try to read one or more bytes before the start of the subject string.
1324    
1325    7. A lookbehind in a pattern matched in non-UTF-8 mode on a PCRE compiled with
1326       UTF-8 support could misbehave in various ways if the subject string
1327       contained bytes with the 0x80 bit set and the 0x40 bit unset in a lookbehind
1328       area. (PCRE was not checking for the UTF-8 mode flag, and trying to move
1329       back over UTF-8 characters.)
1330    
1331    
1332    Version 4.2 14-Apr-03
1333    ---------------------
1334    
1335    1. Typo "#if SUPPORT_UTF8" instead of "#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8" fixed.
1336    
1337    2. Changes to the building process, supplied by Ronald Landheer-Cieslak
1338         [ON_WINDOWS]: new variable, "#" on non-Windows platforms
1339         [NOT_ON_WINDOWS]: new variable, "#" on Windows platforms
1340         [WIN_PREFIX]: new variable, "cyg" for Cygwin
1341         * Makefile.in: use autoconf substitution for OBJEXT, EXEEXT, BUILD_OBJEXT
1342           and BUILD_EXEEXT
1343         Note: automatic setting of the BUILD variables is not yet working
1344         set CPPFLAGS and BUILD_CPPFLAGS (but don't use yet) - should be used at
1345           compile-time but not at link-time
1346         [LINK]: use for linking executables only
1347         make different versions for Windows and non-Windows
1348         [LINKLIB]: new variable, copy of UNIX-style LINK, used for linking
1349           libraries
1350         [LINK_FOR_BUILD]: new variable
1351         [OBJEXT]: use throughout
1352         [EXEEXT]: use throughout
1353         <winshared>: new target
1354         <wininstall>: new target
1355         <dftables.o>: use native compiler
1356         <dftables>: use native linker
1357         <install>: handle Windows platform correctly
1358         <clean>: ditto
1359         <check>: ditto
1360         copy DLL to top builddir before testing
1361    
1362       As part of these changes, -no-undefined was removed again. This was reported
1363       to give trouble on HP-UX 11.0, so getting rid of it seems like a good idea
1364       in any case.
1365    
1366    3. Some tidies to get rid of compiler warnings:
1367    
1368       . In the match_data structure, match_limit was an unsigned long int, whereas
1369         match_call_count was an int. I've made them both unsigned long ints.
1370    
1371       . In pcretest the fact that a const uschar * doesn't automatically cast to
1372         a void * provoked a warning.
1373    
1374       . Turning on some more compiler warnings threw up some "shadow" variables
1375         and a few more missing casts.
1376    
1377    4. If PCRE was complied with UTF-8 support, but called without the PCRE_UTF8
1378       option, a class that contained a single character with a value between 128
1379       and 255 (e.g. /[\xFF]/) caused PCRE to crash.
1380    
1381    5. If PCRE was compiled with UTF-8 support, but called without the PCRE_UTF8
1382       option, a class that contained several characters, but with at least one
1383       whose value was between 128 and 255 caused PCRE to crash.
1384    
1385    
1386    Version 4.1 12-Mar-03
1387    ---------------------
1388    
1389    1. Compiling with gcc -pedantic found a couple of places where casts were
1390    needed, and a string in dftables.c that was longer than standard compilers are
1391    required to support.
1392    
1393    2. Compiling with Sun's compiler found a few more places where the code could
1394    be tidied up in order to avoid warnings.
1395    
1396    3. The variables for cross-compiling were called HOST_CC and HOST_CFLAGS; the
1397    first of these names is deprecated in the latest Autoconf in favour of the name
1398    CC_FOR_BUILD, because "host" is typically used to mean the system on which the
1399    compiled code will be run. I can't find a reference for HOST_CFLAGS, but by
1400    analogy I have changed it to CFLAGS_FOR_BUILD.
1401    
1402    4. Added -no-undefined to the linking command in the Makefile, because this is
1403    apparently helpful for Windows. To make it work, also added "-L. -lpcre" to the
1404    linking step for the pcreposix library.
1405    
1406    5. PCRE was failing to diagnose the case of two named groups with the same
1407    name.
1408    
1409    6. A problem with one of PCRE's optimizations was discovered. PCRE remembers a
1410    literal character that is needed in the subject for a match, and scans along to
1411    ensure that it is present before embarking on the full matching process. This
1412    saves time in cases of nested unlimited repeats that are never going to match.
1413    Problem: the scan can take a lot of time if the subject is very long (e.g.
1414    megabytes), thus penalizing straightforward matches. It is now done only if the
1415    amount of subject to be scanned is less than 1000 bytes.
1416    
1417    7. A lesser problem with the same optimization is that it was recording the
1418    first character of an anchored pattern as "needed", thus provoking a search
1419    right along the subject, even when the first match of the pattern was going to
1420    fail. The "needed" character is now not set for anchored patterns, unless it
1421    follows something in the pattern that is of non-fixed length. Thus, it still
1422    fulfils its original purpose of finding quick non-matches in cases of nested
1423    unlimited repeats, but isn't used for simple anchored patterns such as /^abc/.
1424    
1425    
1426    Version 4.0 17-Feb-03
1427    ---------------------
1428    
1429    1. If a comment in an extended regex that started immediately after a meta-item
1430    extended to the end of string, PCRE compiled incorrect data. This could lead to
1431    all kinds of weird effects. Example: /#/ was bad; /()#/ was bad; /a#/ was not.
1432    
1433    2. Moved to autoconf 2.53 and libtool 1.4.2.
1434    
1435    3. Perl 5.8 no longer needs "use utf8" for doing UTF-8 things. Consequently,
1436    the special perltest8 script is no longer needed - all the tests can be run
1437    from a single perltest script.
1438    
1439    4. From 5.004, Perl has not included the VT character (0x0b) in the set defined
1440    by \s. It has now been removed in PCRE. This means it isn't recognized as
1441    whitespace in /x regexes too, which is the same as Perl. Note that the POSIX
1442    class [:space:] *does* include VT, thereby creating a mess.
1443    
1444    5. Added the class [:blank:] (a GNU extension from Perl 5.8) to match only
1445    space and tab.
1446    
1447    6. Perl 5.005 was a long time ago. It's time to amalgamate the tests that use
1448    its new features into the main test script, reducing the number of scripts.
1449    
1450    7. Perl 5.8 has changed the meaning of patterns like /a(?i)b/. Earlier versions
1451    were backward compatible, and made the (?i) apply to the whole pattern, as if
1452    /i were given. Now it behaves more logically, and applies the option setting
1453    only to what follows. PCRE has been changed to follow suit. However, if it
1454    finds options settings right at the start of the pattern, it extracts them into
1455    the global options, as before. Thus, they show up in the info data.
1456    
1457    8. Added support for the \Q...\E escape sequence. Characters in between are
1458    treated as literals. This is slightly different from Perl in that $ and @ are
1459    also handled as literals inside the quotes. In Perl, they will cause variable
1460    interpolation. Note the following examples:
1461    
1462        Pattern            PCRE matches      Perl matches
1463    
1464        \Qabc$xyz\E        abc$xyz           abc followed by the contents of $xyz
1465        \Qabc\$xyz\E       abc\$xyz          abc\$xyz
1466        \Qabc\E\$\Qxyz\E   abc$xyz           abc$xyz
1467    
1468    For compatibility with Perl, \Q...\E sequences are recognized inside character
1469    classes as well as outside them.
1470    
1471    9. Re-organized 3 code statements in pcretest to avoid "overflow in
1472    floating-point constant arithmetic" warnings from a Microsoft compiler. Added a
1473    (size_t) cast to one statement in pcretest and one in pcreposix to avoid
1474    signed/unsigned warnings.
1475    
1476    10. SunOS4 doesn't have strtoul(). This was used only for unpicking the -o
1477    option for pcretest, so I've replaced it by a simple function that does just
1478    that job.
1479    
1480    11. pcregrep was ending with code 0 instead of 2 for the commands "pcregrep" or
1481    "pcregrep -".
1482    
1483    12. Added "possessive quantifiers" ?+, *+, ++, and {,}+ which come from Sun's
1484    Java package. This provides some syntactic sugar for simple cases of what my
1485    documentation calls "once-only subpatterns". A pattern such as x*+ is the same
1486    as (?>x*). In other words, if what is inside (?>...) is just a single repeated
1487    item, you can use this simplified notation. Note that only makes sense with
1488    greedy quantifiers. Consequently, the use of the possessive quantifier forces
1489    greediness, whatever the setting of the PCRE_UNGREEDY option.
1490    
1491    13. A change of greediness default within a pattern was not taking effect at
1492    the current level for patterns like /(b+(?U)a+)/. It did apply to parenthesized
1493    subpatterns that followed. Patterns like /b+(?U)a+/ worked because the option
1494    was abstracted outside.
1495    
1496    14. PCRE now supports the \G assertion. It is true when the current matching
1497    position is at the start point of the match. This differs from \A when the
1498    starting offset is non-zero. Used with the /g option of pcretest (or similar
1499    code), it works in the same way as it does for Perl's /g option. If all
1500    alternatives of a regex begin with \G, the expression is anchored to the start
1501    match position, and the "anchored" flag is set in the compiled expression.
1502    
1503    15. Some bugs concerning the handling of certain option changes within patterns
1504    have been fixed. These applied to options other than (?ims). For example,
1505    "a(?x: b c )d" did not match "XabcdY" but did match "Xa b c dY". It should have
1506    been the other way round. Some of this was related to change 7 above.
1507    
1508    16. PCRE now gives errors for /[.x.]/ and /[=x=]/ as unsupported POSIX
1509    features, as Perl does. Previously, PCRE gave the warnings only for /[[.x.]]/
1510    and /[[=x=]]/. PCRE now also gives an error for /[:name:]/ because it supports
1511    POSIX classes only within a class (e.g. /[[:alpha:]]/).
1512    
1513    17. Added support for Perl's \C escape. This matches one byte, even in UTF8
1514    mode. Unlike ".", it always matches newline, whatever the setting of
1515    PCRE_DOTALL. However, PCRE does not permit \C to appear in lookbehind
1516    assertions. Perl allows it, but it doesn't (in general) work because it can't
1517    calculate the length of the lookbehind. At least, that's the case for Perl
1518    5.8.0 - I've been told they are going to document that it doesn't work in
1519    future.
1520    
1521    18. Added an error diagnosis for escapes that PCRE does not support: these are
1522    \L, \l, \N, \P, \p, \U, \u, and \X.
1523    
1524    19. Although correctly diagnosing a missing ']' in a character class, PCRE was
1525    reading past the end of the pattern in cases such as /[abcd/.
1526    
1527    20. PCRE was getting more memory than necessary for patterns with classes that
1528    contained both POSIX named classes and other characters, e.g. /[[:space:]abc/.
1529    
1530    21. Added some code, conditional on #ifdef VPCOMPAT, to make life easier for
1531    compiling PCRE for use with Virtual Pascal.
1532    
1533    22. Small fix to the Makefile to make it work properly if the build is done
1534    outside the source tree.
1535    
1536    23. Added a new extension: a condition to go with recursion. If a conditional
1537    subpattern starts with (?(R) the "true" branch is used if recursion has
1538    happened, whereas the "false" branch is used only at the top level.
1539    
1540    24. When there was a very long string of literal characters (over 255 bytes
1541    without UTF support, over 250 bytes with UTF support), the computation of how
1542    much memory was required could be incorrect, leading to segfaults or other
1543    strange effects.
1544    
1545    25. PCRE was incorrectly assuming anchoring (either to start of subject or to
1546    start of line for a non-DOTALL pattern) when a pattern started with (.*) and
1547    there was a subsequent back reference to those brackets. This meant that, for
1548    example, /(.*)\d+\1/ failed to match "abc123bc". Unfortunately, it isn't
1549    possible to check for precisely this case. All we can do is abandon the
1550    optimization if .* occurs inside capturing brackets when there are any back
1551    references whatsoever. (See below for a better fix that came later.)
1552    
1553    26. The handling of the optimization for finding the first character of a
1554    non-anchored pattern, and for finding a character that is required later in the
1555    match were failing in some cases. This didn't break the matching; it just
1556    failed to optimize when it could. The way this is done has been re-implemented.
1557    
1558    27. Fixed typo in error message for invalid (?R item (it said "(?p").
1559    
1560    28. Added a new feature that provides some of the functionality that Perl
1561    provides with (?{...}). The facility is termed a "callout". The way it is done
1562    in PCRE is for the caller to provide an optional function, by setting
1563    pcre_callout to its entry point. Like pcre_malloc and pcre_free, this is a
1564    global variable. By default it is unset, which disables all calling out. To get
1565    the function called, the regex must include (?C) at appropriate points. This
1566    is, in fact, equivalent to (?C0), and any number <= 255 may be given with (?C).
1567    This provides a means of identifying different callout points. When PCRE
1568    reaches such a point in the regex, if pcre_callout has been set, the external
1569    function is called. It is provided with data in a structure called
1570    pcre_callout_block, which is defined in pcre.h. If the function returns 0,
1571    matching continues; if it returns a non-zero value, the match at the current
1572    point fails. However, backtracking will occur if possible. [This was changed
1573    later and other features added - see item 49 below.]
1574    
1575    29. pcretest is upgraded to test the callout functionality. It provides a
1576    callout function that displays information. By default, it shows the start of
1577    the match and the current position in the text. There are some new data escapes
1578    to vary what happens:
1579    
1580        \C+         in addition, show current contents of captured substrings
1581        \C-         do not supply a callout function
1582        \C!n        return 1 when callout number n is reached
1583        \C!n!m      return 1 when callout number n is reached for the mth time
1584    
1585    30. If pcregrep was called with the -l option and just a single file name, it
1586    output "<stdin>" if a match was found, instead of the file name.
1587    
1588    31. Improve the efficiency of the POSIX API to PCRE. If the number of capturing
1589    slots is less than POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD, use a block on the stack to pass to
1590    pcre_exec(). This saves a malloc/free per call. The default value of
1591    POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD is 10; it can be changed by --with-posix-malloc-threshold
1592    when configuring.
1593    
1594    32. The default maximum size of a compiled pattern is 64K. There have been a
1595    few cases of people hitting this limit. The code now uses macros to handle the
1596    storing of links as offsets within the compiled pattern. It defaults to 2-byte
1597    links, but this can be changed to 3 or 4 bytes by --with-link-size when
1598    configuring. Tests 2 and 5 work only with 2-byte links because they output
1599    debugging information about compiled patterns.
1600    
1601    33. Internal code re-arrangements:
1602    
1603    (a) Moved the debugging function for printing out a compiled regex into
1604        its own source file (printint.c) and used #include to pull it into
1605        pcretest.c and, when DEBUG is defined, into pcre.c, instead of having two
1606        separate copies.
1607    
1608    (b) Defined the list of op-code names for debugging as a macro in
1609        internal.h so that it is next to the definition of the opcodes.
1610    
1611    (c) Defined a table of op-code lengths for simpler skipping along compiled
1612        code. This is again a macro in internal.h so that it is next to the
1613        definition of the opcodes.
1614    
1615    34. Added support for recursive calls to individual subpatterns, along the
1616    lines of Robin Houston's patch (but implemented somewhat differently).
1617    
1618    35. Further mods to the Makefile to help Win32. Also, added code to pcregrep to
1619    allow it to read and process whole directories in Win32. This code was
1620    contributed by Lionel Fourquaux; it has not been tested by me.
1621    
1622    36. Added support for named subpatterns. The Python syntax (?P<name>...) is
1623    used to name a group. Names consist of alphanumerics and underscores, and must
1624    be unique. Back references use the syntax (?P=name) and recursive calls use
1625    (?P>name) which is a PCRE extension to the Python extension. Groups still have
1626    numbers. The function pcre_fullinfo() can be used after compilation to extract
1627    a name/number map. There are three relevant calls:
1628    
1629      PCRE_INFO_NAMEENTRYSIZE        yields the size of each entry in the map
1630      PCRE_INFO_NAMECOUNT            yields the number of entries
1631      PCRE_INFO_NAMETABLE            yields a pointer to the map.
1632    
1633    The map is a vector of fixed-size entries. The size of each entry depends on
1634    the length of the longest name used. The first two bytes of each entry are the
1635    group number, most significant byte first. There follows the corresponding
1636    name, zero terminated. The names are in alphabetical order.
1637    
1638    37. Make the maximum literal string in the compiled code 250 for the non-UTF-8
1639    case instead of 255. Making it the same both with and without UTF-8 support
1640    means that the same test output works with both.
1641    
1642    38. There was a case of malloc(0) in the POSIX testing code in pcretest. Avoid
1643    calling malloc() with a zero argument.
1644    
1645    39. Change 25 above had to resort to a heavy-handed test for the .* anchoring
1646    optimization. I've improved things by keeping a bitmap of backreferences with
1647    numbers 1-31 so that if .* occurs inside capturing brackets that are not in
1648    fact referenced, the optimization can be applied. It is unlikely that a
1649    relevant occurrence of .* (i.e. one which might indicate anchoring or forcing
1650    the match to follow \n) will appear inside brackets with a number greater than
1651    31, but if it does, any back reference > 31 suppresses the optimization.
1652    
1653    40. Added a new compile-time option PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE. This has the effect
1654    of disabling numbered capturing parentheses. Any opening parenthesis that is
1655    not followed by ? behaves as if it were followed by ?: but named parentheses
1656    can still be used for capturing (and they will acquire numbers in the usual
1657    way).
1658    
1659    41. Redesigned the return codes from the match() function into yes/no/error so
1660    that errors can be passed back from deep inside the nested calls. A malloc
1661    failure while inside a recursive subpattern call now causes the
1662    PCRE_ERROR_NOMEMORY return instead of quietly going wrong.
1663    
1664    42. It is now possible to set a limit on the number of times the match()
1665    function is called in a call to pcre_exec(). This facility makes it possible to
1666    limit the amount of recursion and backtracking, though not in a directly
1667    obvious way, because the match() function is used in a number of different
1668    circumstances. The count starts from zero for each position in the subject
1669    string (for non-anchored patterns). The default limit is, for compatibility, a
1670    large number, namely 10 000 000. You can change this in two ways:
1671    
1672    (a) When configuring PCRE before making, you can use --with-match-limit=n
1673        to set a default value for the compiled library.
1674    
1675    (b) For each call to pcre_exec(), you can pass a pcre_extra block in which
1676        a different value is set. See 45 below.
1677    
1678    If the limit is exceeded, pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_MATCHLIMIT.
1679    
1680    43. Added a new function pcre_config(int, void *) to enable run-time extraction
1681    of things that can be changed at compile time. The first argument specifies
1682    what is wanted and the second points to where the information is to be placed.
1683    The current list of available information is:
1684    
1685      PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8
1686    
1687    The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;
1688    otherwise it is set to zero.
1689    
1690      PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
1691    
1692    The output is an integer that it set to the value of the code that is used for
1693    newline. It is either LF (10) or CR (13).
1694    
1695      PCRE_CONFIG_LINK_SIZE
1696    
1697    The output is an integer that contains the number of bytes used for internal
1698    linkage in compiled expressions. The value is 2, 3, or 4. See item 32 above.
1699    
1700      PCRE_CONFIG_POSIX_MALLOC_THRESHOLD
1701    
1702    The output is an integer that contains the threshold above which the POSIX
1703    interface uses malloc() for output vectors. See item 31 above.
1704    
1705      PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT
1706    
1707    The output is an unsigned integer that contains the default limit of the number
1708    of match() calls in a pcre_exec() execution. See 42 above.
1709    
1710    44. pcretest has been upgraded by the addition of the -C option. This causes it
1711    to extract all the available output from the new pcre_config() function, and to
1712    output it. The program then exits immediately.
1713    
1714    45. A need has arisen to pass over additional data with calls to pcre_exec() in
1715    order to support additional features. One way would have been to define
1716    pcre_exec2() (for example) with extra arguments, but this would not have been
1717    extensible, and would also have required all calls to the original function to
1718    be mapped to the new one. Instead, I have chosen to extend the mechanism that
1719    is used for passing in "extra" data from pcre_study().
1720    
1721    The pcre_extra structure is now exposed and defined in pcre.h. It currently
1722    contains the following fields:
1723    
1724      flags         a bitmap indicating which of the following fields are set
1725      study_data    opaque data from pcre_study()
1726      match_limit   a way of specifying a limit on match() calls for a specific
1727                      call to pcre_exec()
1728      callout_data  data for callouts (see 49 below)
1729    
1730    The flag bits are also defined in pcre.h, and are
1731    
1732      PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA
1733      PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT
1734      PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA
1735    
1736    The pcre_study() function now returns one of these new pcre_extra blocks, with
1737    the actual study data pointed to by the study_data field, and the
1738    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA flag set. This can be passed directly to pcre_exec() as
1739    before. That is, this change is entirely upwards-compatible and requires no
1740    change to existing code.
1741    
1742    If you want to pass in additional data to pcre_exec(), you can either place it
1743    in a pcre_extra block provided by pcre_study(), or create your own pcre_extra
1744    block.
1745    
1746    46. pcretest has been extended to test the PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT feature. If a
1747    data string contains the escape sequence \M, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several
1748    times with different match limits, until it finds the minimum value needed for
1749    pcre_exec() to complete. The value is then output. This can be instructive; for
1750    most simple matches the number is quite small, but for pathological cases it
1751    gets very large very quickly.
1752    
1753    47. There's a new option for pcre_fullinfo() called PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE. It
1754    returns the size of the data block pointed to by the study_data field in a
1755    pcre_extra block, that is, the value that was passed as the argument to
1756    pcre_malloc() when PCRE was getting memory in which to place the information
1757    created by pcre_study(). The fourth argument should point to a size_t variable.
1758    pcretest has been extended so that this information is shown after a successful
1759    pcre_study() call when information about the compiled regex is being displayed.
1760    
1761    48. Cosmetic change to Makefile: there's no need to have / after $(DESTDIR)
1762    because what follows is always an absolute path. (Later: it turns out that this
1763    is more than cosmetic for MinGW, because it doesn't like empty path
1764    components.)
1765    
1766    49. Some changes have been made to the callout feature (see 28 above):
1767    
1768    (i)  A callout function now has three choices for what it returns:
1769    
1770           0  =>  success, carry on matching
1771         > 0  =>  failure at this point, but backtrack if possible
1772         < 0  =>  serious error, return this value from pcre_exec()
1773    
1774         Negative values should normally be chosen from the set of PCRE_ERROR_xxx
1775         values. In particular, returning PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH forces a standard
1776         "match failed" error. The error number PCRE_ERROR_CALLOUT is reserved for
1777         use by callout functions. It will never be used by PCRE itself.
1778    
1779    (ii) The pcre_extra structure (see 45 above) has a void * field called
1780         callout_data, with corresponding flag bit PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA. The
1781         pcre_callout_block structure has a field of the same name. The contents of
1782         the field passed in the pcre_extra structure are passed to the callout
1783         function in the corresponding field in the callout block. This makes it
1784         easier to use the same callout-containing regex from multiple threads. For
1785         testing, the pcretest program has a new data escape
1786    
1787           \C*n        pass the number n (may be negative) as callout_data
1788    
1789         If the callout function in pcretest receives a non-zero value as
1790         callout_data, it returns that value.
1791    
1792    50. Makefile wasn't handling CFLAGS properly when compiling dftables. Also,
1793    there were some redundant $(CFLAGS) in commands that are now specified as
1794    $(LINK), which already includes $(CFLAGS).
1795    
1796    51. Extensions to UTF-8 support are listed below. These all apply when (a) PCRE
1797    has been compiled with UTF-8 support *and* pcre_compile() has been compiled
1798    with the PCRE_UTF8 flag. Patterns that are compiled without that flag assume
1799    one-byte characters throughout. Note that case-insensitive matching applies
1800    only to characters whose values are less than 256. PCRE doesn't support the
1801    notion of cases for higher-valued characters.
1802    
1803    (i)   A character class whose characters are all within 0-255 is handled as
1804          a bit map, and the map is inverted for negative classes. Previously, a
1805          character > 255 always failed to match such a class; however it should
1806          match if the class was a negative one (e.g. [^ab]). This has been fixed.
1807    
1808    (ii)  A negated character class with a single character < 255 is coded as
1809          "not this character" (OP_NOT). This wasn't working properly when the test
1810          character was multibyte, either singly or repeated.
1811    
1812    (iii) Repeats of multibyte characters are now handled correctly in UTF-8
1813          mode, for example: \x{100}{2,3}.
1814    
1815    (iv)  The character escapes \b, \B, \d, \D, \s, \S, \w, and \W (either
1816          singly or repeated) now correctly test multibyte characters. However,
1817          PCRE doesn't recognize any characters with values greater than 255 as
1818          digits, spaces, or word characters. Such characters always match \D, \S,
1819          and \W, and never match \d, \s, or \w.
1820    
1821    (v)   Classes may now contain characters and character ranges with values
1822          greater than 255. For example: [ab\x{100}-\x{400}].
1823    
1824    (vi)  pcregrep now has a --utf-8 option (synonym -u) which makes it call
1825          PCRE in UTF-8 mode.
1826    
1827    52. The info request value PCRE_INFO_FIRSTCHAR has been renamed
1828    PCRE_INFO_FIRSTBYTE because it is a byte value. However, the old name is
1829    retained for backwards compatibility. (Note that LASTLITERAL is also a byte
1830    value.)
1831    
1832    53. The single man page has become too large. I have therefore split it up into
1833    a number of separate man pages. These also give rise to individual HTML pages;
1834    these are now put in a separate directory, and there is an index.html page that
1835    lists them all. Some hyperlinking between the pages has been installed.
1836    
1837    54. Added convenience functions for handling named capturing parentheses.
1838    
1839    55. Unknown escapes inside character classes (e.g. [\M]) and escapes that
1840    aren't interpreted therein (e.g. [\C]) are literals in Perl. This is now also
1841    true in PCRE, except when the PCRE_EXTENDED option is set, in which case they
1842    are faulted.
1843    
1844    56. Introduced HOST_CC and HOST_CFLAGS which can be set in the environment when
1845    calling configure. These values are used when compiling the dftables.c program
1846    which is run to generate the source of the default character tables. They
1847    default to the values of CC and CFLAGS. If you are cross-compiling PCRE,
1848    you will need to set these values.
1849    
1850    57. Updated the building process for Windows DLL, as provided by Fred Cox.
1851    
1852    
1853    Version 3.9 02-Jan-02
1854    ---------------------
1855    
1856    1. A bit of extraneous text had somehow crept into the pcregrep documentation.
1857    
1858    2. If --disable-static was given, the building process failed when trying to
1859    build pcretest and pcregrep. (For some reason it was using libtool to compile
1860    them, which is not right, as they aren't part of the library.)
1861    
1862    
1863    Version 3.8 18-Dec-01
1864    ---------------------
1865    
1866    1. The experimental UTF-8 code was completely screwed up. It was packing the
1867    bytes in the wrong order. How dumb can you get?
1868    
1869    
1870    Version 3.7 29-Oct-01
1871    ---------------------
1872    
1873    1. In updating pcretest to check change 1 of version 3.6, I screwed up.
1874    This caused pcretest, when used on the test data, to segfault. Unfortunately,
1875    this didn't happen under Solaris 8, where I normally test things.
1876    
1877    2. The Makefile had to be changed to make it work on BSD systems, where 'make'
1878    doesn't seem to recognize that ./xxx and xxx are the same file. (This entry
1879    isn't in ChangeLog distributed with 3.7 because I forgot when I hastily made
1880    this fix an hour or so after the initial 3.7 release.)
1881    
1882    
1883    Version 3.6 23-Oct-01
1884    ---------------------
1885    
1886    1. Crashed with /(sens|respons)e and \1ibility/ and "sense and sensibility" if
1887    offsets passed as NULL with zero offset count.
1888    
1889    2. The config.guess and config.sub files had not been updated when I moved to
1890    the latest autoconf.
1891    
1892    
1893    Version 3.5 15-Aug-01
1894    ---------------------
1895    
1896    1. Added some missing #if !defined NOPOSIX conditionals in pcretest.c that
1897    had been forgotten.
1898    
1899    2. By using declared but undefined structures, we can avoid using "void"
1900    definitions in pcre.h while keeping the internal definitions of the structures
1901    private.
1902    
1903    3. The distribution is now built using autoconf 2.50 and libtool 1.4. From a
1904    user point of view, this means that both static and shared libraries are built
1905    by default, but this can be individually controlled. More of the work of
1906    handling this static/shared cases is now inside libtool instead of PCRE's make
1907    file.
1908    
1909    4. The pcretest utility is now installed along with pcregrep because it is
1910    useful for users (to test regexs) and by doing this, it automatically gets
1911    relinked by libtool. The documentation has been turned into a man page, so
1912    there are now .1, .txt, and .html versions in /doc.
1913    
1914    5. Upgrades to pcregrep:
1915       (i)   Added long-form option names like gnu grep.
1916       (ii)  Added --help to list all options with an explanatory phrase.
1917       (iii) Added -r, --recursive to recurse into sub-directories.
1918       (iv)  Added -f, --file to read patterns from a file.
1919    
1920    6. pcre_exec() was referring to its "code" argument before testing that
1921    argument for NULL (and giving an error if it was NULL).
1922    
1923    7. Upgraded Makefile.in to allow for compiling in a different directory from
1924    the source directory.
1925    
1926    8. Tiny buglet in pcretest: when pcre_fullinfo() was called to retrieve the
1927    options bits, the pointer it was passed was to an int instead of to an unsigned
1928    long int. This mattered only on 64-bit systems.
1929    
1930    9. Fixed typo (3.4/1) in pcre.h again. Sigh. I had changed pcre.h (which is
1931    generated) instead of pcre.in, which it its source. Also made the same change
1932    in several of the .c files.
1933    
1934    10. A new release of gcc defines printf() as a macro, which broke pcretest
1935    because it had an ifdef in the middle of a string argument for printf(). Fixed
1936    by using separate calls to printf().
1937    
1938    11. Added --enable-newline-is-cr and --enable-newline-is-lf to the configure
1939    script, to force use of CR or LF instead of \n in the source. On non-Unix
1940    systems, the value can be set in config.h.
1941    
1942    12. The limit of 200 on non-capturing parentheses is a _nesting_ limit, not an
1943    absolute limit. Changed the text of the error message to make this clear, and
1944    likewise updated the man page.
1945    
1946    13. The limit of 99 on the number of capturing subpatterns has been removed.
1947    The new limit is 65535, which I hope will not be a "real" limit.
1948    
1949    
1950    Version 3.4 22-Aug-00
1951    ---------------------
1952    
1953    1. Fixed typo in pcre.h: unsigned const char * changed to const unsigned char *.
1954    
1955    2. Diagnose condition (?(0) as an error instead of crashing on matching.
1956    
1957    
1958    Version 3.3 01-Aug-00
1959    ---------------------
1960    
1961    1. If an octal character was given, but the value was greater than \377, it
1962    was not getting masked to the least significant bits, as documented. This could
1963    lead to crashes in some systems.
1964    
1965    2. Perl 5.6 (if not earlier versions) accepts classes like [a-\d] and treats
1966    the hyphen as a literal. PCRE used to give an error; it now behaves like Perl.
1967    
1968    3. Added the functions pcre_free_substring() and pcre_free_substring_list().
1969    These just pass their arguments on to (pcre_free)(), but they are provided
1970    because some uses of PCRE bind it to non-C systems that can call its functions,
1971    but cannot call free() or pcre_free() directly.
1972    
1973    4. Add "make test" as a synonym for "make check". Corrected some comments in
1974    the Makefile.
1975    
1976    5. Add $(DESTDIR)/ in front of all the paths in the "install" target in the
1977    Makefile.
1978    
1979    6. Changed the name of pgrep to pcregrep, because Solaris has introduced a
1980    command called pgrep for grepping around the active processes.
1981    
1982    7. Added the beginnings of support for UTF-8 character strings.
1983    
1984    8. Arranged for the Makefile to pass over the settings of CC, CFLAGS, and
1985    RANLIB to ./ltconfig so that they are used by libtool. I think these are all
1986    the relevant ones. (AR is not passed because ./ltconfig does its own figuring
1987    out for the ar command.)
1988    
1989    
1990    Version 3.2 12-May-00
1991    ---------------------
1992    
1993    This is purely a bug fixing release.
1994    
1995    1. If the pattern /((Z)+|A)*/ was matched agained ZABCDEFG it matched Z instead
1996    of ZA. This was just one example of several cases that could provoke this bug,
1997    which was introduced by change 9 of version 2.00. The code for breaking
1998    infinite loops after an iteration that matches an empty string was't working
1999    correctly.
2000    
2001    2. The pcretest program was not imitating Perl correctly for the pattern /a*/g
2002    when matched against abbab (for example). After matching an empty string, it
2003    wasn't forcing anchoring when setting PCRE_NOTEMPTY for the next attempt; this
2004    caused it to match further down the string than it should.
2005    
2006    3. The code contained an inclusion of sys/types.h. It isn't clear why this
2007    was there because it doesn't seem to be needed, and it causes trouble on some
2008    systems, as it is not a Standard C header. It has been removed.
2009    
2010    4. Made 4 silly changes to the source to avoid stupid compiler warnings that
2011    were reported on the Macintosh. The changes were from
2012    
2013      while ((c = *(++ptr)) != 0 && c != '\n');
2014    to
2015      while ((c = *(++ptr)) != 0 && c != '\n') ;
2016    
2017    Totally extraordinary, but if that's what it takes...
2018    
2019    5. PCRE is being used in one environment where neither memmove() nor bcopy() is
2020    available. Added HAVE_BCOPY and an autoconf test for it; if neither
2021    HAVE_MEMMOVE nor HAVE_BCOPY is set, use a built-in emulation function which
2022    assumes the way PCRE uses memmove() (always moving upwards).
2023    
2024    6. PCRE is being used in one environment where strchr() is not available. There
2025    was only one use in pcre.c, and writing it out to avoid strchr() probably gives
2026    faster code anyway.
2027    
2028    
2029    Version 3.1 09-Feb-00
2030    ---------------------
2031    
2032    The only change in this release is the fixing of some bugs in Makefile.in for
2033    the "install" target:
2034    
2035    (1) It was failing to install pcreposix.h.
2036    
2037    (2) It was overwriting the pcre.3 man page with the pcreposix.3 man page.
2038    
2039    
2040    Version 3.0 01-Feb-00
2041    ---------------------
2042    
2043    1. Add support for the /+ modifier to perltest (to output $` like it does in
2044    pcretest).
2045    
2046    2. Add support for the /g modifier to perltest.
2047    
2048    3. Fix pcretest so that it behaves even more like Perl for /g when the pattern
2049    matches null strings.
2050    
2051    4. Fix perltest so that it doesn't do unwanted things when fed an empty
2052    pattern. Perl treats empty patterns specially - it reuses the most recent
2053    pattern, which is not what we want. Replace // by /(?#)/ in order to avoid this
2054    effect.
2055    
2056    5. The POSIX interface was broken in that it was just handing over the POSIX
2057    captured string vector to pcre_exec(), but (since release 2.00) PCRE has
2058    required a bigger vector, with some working space on the end. This means that
2059    the POSIX wrapper now has to get and free some memory, and copy the results.
2060    
2061    6. Added some simple autoconf support, placing the test data and the
2062    documentation in separate directories, re-organizing some of the
2063    information files, and making it build pcre-config (a GNU standard). Also added
2064    libtool support for building PCRE as a shared library, which is now the
2065    default.
2066    
2067    7. Got rid of the leading zero in the definition of PCRE_MINOR because 08 and
2068    09 are not valid octal constants. Single digits will be used for minor values
2069    less than 10.
2070    
2071    8. Defined REG_EXTENDED and REG_NOSUB as zero in the POSIX header, so that
2072    existing programs that set these in the POSIX interface can use PCRE without
2073    modification.
2074    
2075    9. Added a new function, pcre_fullinfo() with an extensible interface. It can
2076    return all that pcre_info() returns, plus additional data. The pcre_info()
2077    function is retained for compatibility, but is considered to be obsolete.
2078    
2079    10. Added experimental recursion feature (?R) to handle one common case that
2080    Perl 5.6 will be able to do with (?p{...}).
2081    
2082    11. Added support for POSIX character classes like [:alpha:], which Perl is
2083    adopting.
2084    
2085    
2086  Version 2.08 31-Aug-99  Version 2.08 31-Aug-99
2087  ----------------------  ----------------------

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