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Tag code/trunk as code/tags/pcre-6.4.

1 .TH PCRECPP 3
2 .SH NAME
3 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions.
4 .SH "SYNOPSIS OF C++ WRAPPER"
5 .rs
6 .sp
7 .B #include <pcrecpp.h>
8 .PP
9 .SM
10 .br
11 .SH DESCRIPTION
12 .rs
13 .sp
14 The C++ wrapper for PCRE was provided by Google Inc. Some additional
15 functionality was added by Giuseppe Maxia. This brief man page was constructed
16 from the notes in the \fIpcrecpp.h\fP file, which should be consulted for
17 further details.
18 .
19 .
20 .SH "MATCHING INTERFACE"
21 .rs
22 .sp
23 The "FullMatch" operation checks that supplied text matches a supplied pattern
24 exactly. If pointer arguments are supplied, it copies matched sub-strings that
25 match sub-patterns into them.
26 .sp
27 Example: successful match
28 pcrecpp::RE re("h.*o");
29 re.FullMatch("hello");
30 .sp
31 Example: unsuccessful match (requires full match):
32 pcrecpp::RE re("e");
33 !re.FullMatch("hello");
34 .sp
35 Example: creating a temporary RE object:
36 pcrecpp::RE("h.*o").FullMatch("hello");
37 .sp
38 You can pass in a "const char*" or a "string" for "text". The examples below
39 tend to use a const char*. You can, as in the different examples above, store
40 the RE object explicitly in a variable or use a temporary RE object. The
41 examples below use one mode or the other arbitrarily. Either could correctly be
42 used for any of these examples.
43 .P
44 You must supply extra pointer arguments to extract matched subpieces.
45 .sp
46 Example: extracts "ruby" into "s" and 1234 into "i"
47 int i;
48 string s;
49 pcrecpp::RE re("(\e\ew+):(\e\ed+)");
50 re.FullMatch("ruby:1234", &s, &i);
51 .sp
52 Example: does not try to extract any extra sub-patterns
53 re.FullMatch("ruby:1234", &s);
54 .sp
55 Example: does not try to extract into NULL
56 re.FullMatch("ruby:1234", NULL, &i);
57 .sp
58 Example: integer overflow causes failure
59 !re.FullMatch("ruby:1234567891234", NULL, &i);
60 .sp
61 Example: fails because there aren't enough sub-patterns:
62 !pcrecpp::RE("\e\ew+:\e\ed+").FullMatch("ruby:1234", &s);
63 .sp
64 Example: fails because string cannot be stored in integer
65 !pcrecpp::RE("(.*)").FullMatch("ruby", &i);
66 .sp
67 The provided pointer arguments can be pointers to any scalar numeric
68 type, or one of:
69 .sp
70 string (matched piece is copied to string)
71 StringPiece (StringPiece is mutated to point to matched piece)
72 T (where "bool T::ParseFrom(const char*, int)" exists)
73 NULL (the corresponding matched sub-pattern is not copied)
74 .sp
75 The function returns true iff all of the following conditions are satisfied:
76 .sp
77 a. "text" matches "pattern" exactly;
78 .sp
79 b. The number of matched sub-patterns is >= number of supplied
80 pointers;
81 .sp
82 c. The "i"th argument has a suitable type for holding the
83 string captured as the "i"th sub-pattern. If you pass in
84 NULL for the "i"th argument, or pass fewer arguments than
85 number of sub-patterns, "i"th captured sub-pattern is
86 ignored.
87 .sp
88 The matching interface supports at most 16 arguments per call.
89 If you need more, consider using the more general interface
90 \fBpcrecpp::RE::DoMatch\fP. See \fBpcrecpp.h\fP for the signature for
91 \fBDoMatch\fP.
92 .
93 .SH "PARTIAL MATCHES"
94 .rs
95 .sp
96 You can use the "PartialMatch" operation when you want the pattern
97 to match any substring of the text.
98 .sp
99 Example: simple search for a string:
100 pcrecpp::RE("ell").PartialMatch("hello");
101 .sp
102 Example: find first number in a string:
103 int number;
104 pcrecpp::RE re("(\e\ed+)");
105 re.PartialMatch("x*100 + 20", &number);
106 assert(number == 100);
107 .
108 .
109 .SH "UTF-8 AND THE MATCHING INTERFACE"
110 .rs
111 .sp
112 By default, pattern and text are plain text, one byte per character. The UTF8
113 flag, passed to the constructor, causes both pattern and string to be treated
114 as UTF-8 text, still a byte stream but potentially multiple bytes per
115 character. In practice, the text is likelier to be UTF-8 than the pattern, but
116 the match returned may depend on the UTF8 flag, so always use it when matching
117 UTF8 text. For example, "." will match one byte normally but with UTF8 set may
118 match up to three bytes of a multi-byte character.
119 .sp
120 Example:
121 pcrecpp::RE_Options options;
122 options.set_utf8();
123 pcrecpp::RE re(utf8_pattern, options);
124 re.FullMatch(utf8_string);
125 .sp
126 Example: using the convenience function UTF8():
127 pcrecpp::RE re(utf8_pattern, pcrecpp::UTF8());
128 re.FullMatch(utf8_string);
129 .sp
130 NOTE: The UTF8 flag is ignored if pcre was not configured with the
131 --enable-utf8 flag.
132 .
133 .
134 .SH "PASSING MODIFIERS TO THE REGULAR EXPRESSION ENGINE"
135 .rs
136 .sp
137 PCRE defines some modifiers to change the behavior of the regular expression
138 engine. The C++ wrapper defines an auxiliary class, RE_Options, as a vehicle to
139 pass such modifiers to a RE class. Currently, the following modifiers are
140 supported:
141 .sp
142 modifier description Perl corresponding
143 .sp
144 PCRE_CASELESS case insensitive match /i
145 PCRE_MULTILINE multiple lines match /m
146 PCRE_DOTALL dot matches newlines /s
147 PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY $ matches only at end N/A
148 PCRE_EXTRA strict escape parsing N/A
149 PCRE_EXTENDED ignore whitespaces /x
150 PCRE_UTF8 handles UTF8 chars built-in
151 PCRE_UNGREEDY reverses * and *? N/A
152 PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE disables capturing parens N/A (*)
153 .sp
154 (*) Both Perl and PCRE allow non capturing parentheses by means of the
155 "?:" modifier within the pattern itself. e.g. (?:ab|cd) does not
156 capture, while (ab|cd) does.
157 .P
158 For a full account on how each modifier works, please check the
159 PCRE API reference page.
160 .P
161 For each modifier, there are two member functions whose name is made
162 out of the modifier in lowercase, without the "PCRE_" prefix. For
163 instance, PCRE_CASELESS is handled by
164 .sp
165 bool caseless()
166 .sp
167 which returns true if the modifier is set, and
168 .sp
169 RE_Options & set_caseless(bool)
170 .sp
171 which sets or unsets the modifier. Moreover, PCRE_CONFIG_MATCH_LIMIT can be
172 accessed through the \fBset_match_limit()\fR and \fBmatch_limit()\fR member
173 functions. Setting \fImatch_limit\fR to a non-zero value will limit the
174 execution of pcre to keep it from doing bad things like blowing the stack or
175 taking an eternity to return a result. A value of 5000 is good enough to stop
176 stack blowup in a 2MB thread stack. Setting \fImatch_limit\fR to zero disables
177 match limiting.
178 .P
179 Normally, to pass one or more modifiers to a RE class, you declare
180 a \fIRE_Options\fR object, set the appropriate options, and pass this
181 object to a RE constructor. Example:
182 .sp
183 RE_options opt;
184 opt.set_caseless(true);
185 if (RE("HELLO", opt).PartialMatch("hello world")) ...
186 .sp
187 RE_options has two constructors. The default constructor takes no arguments and
188 creates a set of flags that are off by default. The optional parameter
189 \fIoption_flags\fR is to facilitate transfer of legacy code from C programs.
190 This lets you do
191 .sp
192 RE(pattern,
193 RE_Options(PCRE_CASELESS|PCRE_MULTILINE)).PartialMatch(str);
194 .sp
195 However, new code is better off doing
196 .sp
197 RE(pattern,
198 RE_Options().set_caseless(true).set_multiline(true))
199 .PartialMatch(str);
200 .sp
201 If you are going to pass one of the most used modifiers, there are some
202 convenience functions that return a RE_Options class with the
203 appropriate modifier already set: \fBCASELESS()\fR, \fBUTF8()\fR,
204 \fBMULTILINE()\fR, \fBDOTALL\fR(), and \fBEXTENDED()\fR.
205 .P
206 If you need to set several options at once, and you don't want to go through
207 the pains of declaring a RE_Options object and setting several options, there
208 is a parallel method that give you such ability on the fly. You can concatenate
209 several \fBset_xxxxx()\fR member functions, since each of them returns a
210 reference to its class object. For example, to pass PCRE_CASELESS,
211 PCRE_EXTENDED, and PCRE_MULTILINE to a RE with one statement, you may write:
212 .sp
213 RE(" ^ xyz \e\es+ .* blah$",
214 RE_Options()
215 .set_caseless(true)
216 .set_extended(true)
217 .set_multiline(true)).PartialMatch(sometext);
218 .sp
219 .
220 .
221 .SH "SCANNING TEXT INCREMENTALLY"
222 .rs
223 .sp
224 The "Consume" operation may be useful if you want to repeatedly
225 match regular expressions at the front of a string and skip over
226 them as they match. This requires use of the "StringPiece" type,
227 which represents a sub-range of a real string. Like RE, StringPiece
228 is defined in the pcrecpp namespace.
229 .sp
230 Example: read lines of the form "var = value" from a string.
231 string contents = ...; // Fill string somehow
232 pcrecpp::StringPiece input(contents); // Wrap in a StringPiece
233
234 string var;
235 int value;
236 pcrecpp::RE re("(\e\ew+) = (\e\ed+)\en");
237 while (re.Consume(&input, &var, &value)) {
238 ...;
239 }
240 .sp
241 Each successful call to "Consume" will set "var/value", and also
242 advance "input" so it points past the matched text.
243 .P
244 The "FindAndConsume" operation is similar to "Consume" but does not
245 anchor your match at the beginning of the string. For example, you
246 could extract all words from a string by repeatedly calling
247 .sp
248 pcrecpp::RE("(\e\ew+)").FindAndConsume(&input, &word)
249 .
250 .
251 .SH "PARSING HEX/OCTAL/C-RADIX NUMBERS"
252 .rs
253 .sp
254 By default, if you pass a pointer to a numeric value, the
255 corresponding text is interpreted as a base-10 number. You can
256 instead wrap the pointer with a call to one of the operators Hex(),
257 Octal(), or CRadix() to interpret the text in another base. The
258 CRadix operator interprets C-style "0" (base-8) and "0x" (base-16)
259 prefixes, but defaults to base-10.
260 .sp
261 Example:
262 int a, b, c, d;
263 pcrecpp::RE re("(.*) (.*) (.*) (.*)");
264 re.FullMatch("100 40 0100 0x40",
265 pcrecpp::Octal(&a), pcrecpp::Hex(&b),
266 pcrecpp::CRadix(&c), pcrecpp::CRadix(&d));
267 .sp
268 will leave 64 in a, b, c, and d.
269 .
270 .
271 .SH "REPLACING PARTS OF STRINGS"
272 .rs
273 .sp
274 You can replace the first match of "pattern" in "str" with "rewrite".
275 Within "rewrite", backslash-escaped digits (\e1 to \e9) can be
276 used to insert text matching corresponding parenthesized group
277 from the pattern. \e0 in "rewrite" refers to the entire matching
278 text. For example:
279 .sp
280 string s = "yabba dabba doo";
281 pcrecpp::RE("b+").Replace("d", &s);
282 .sp
283 will leave "s" containing "yada dabba doo". The result is true if the pattern
284 matches and a replacement occurs, false otherwise.
285 .P
286 \fBGlobalReplace\fP is like \fBReplace\fP except that it replaces all
287 occurrences of the pattern in the string with the rewrite. Replacements are
288 not subject to re-matching. For example:
289 .sp
290 string s = "yabba dabba doo";
291 pcrecpp::RE("b+").GlobalReplace("d", &s);
292 .sp
293 will leave "s" containing "yada dada doo". It returns the number of
294 replacements made.
295 .P
296 \fBExtract\fP is like \fBReplace\fP, except that if the pattern matches,
297 "rewrite" is copied into "out" (an additional argument) with substitutions.
298 The non-matching portions of "text" are ignored. Returns true iff a match
299 occurred and the extraction happened successfully; if no match occurs, the
300 string is left unaffected.
301 .
302 .
303 .SH AUTHOR
304 .rs
305 .sp
306 The C++ wrapper was contributed by Google Inc.
307 .br
308 Copyright (c) 2005 Google Inc.

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